Subject: UFTO Note- Microturbine Test Programs
Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1998


Microturbine Test Programs

Edison Technology Solutions is offering a subscription program to test microturbines.  It will involve actual testing on a uniform basis of up to 8 "precommercial" and commercial units from different manufacturers.  Two units will commence testing early in January.

Subscribers will have timely access to detailed test data and analyses of performance and interconnection issues.  While some of this information may eventually become available elsewhere, subscribers will not only receive timely information, but will gain access to technology briefings, operations assessments, and lessons-learned. It will be important to have such information before beginning any kind of commercial installations.

EPRI is cofunding this work (along with CEC and DOE), and will receive general test results under this arrangement.  ETS' program, however includes additional detailed analyses and reports, summarized conclusions, and presentations throughout the testing program that will not be available through other sources.

Contact: Jaime Medina, 626-815-0516, jmedina@edisontec.com


In '99, EPRI is continuing a microturbine field test program (which began in 1996 with the testing of Capstone early prototype units at Northern States Power and Southern California Edison).  Participating host utilities will test one or more microturbines at either laboratory or actual end-user sites.  The program will cover all available vendor products (e.g., Capstone, Elliott, Allied-Signal, NREC) and provide information on unit performance as well as interconnection, siting and permitting issues.  The data from all of the tests will be shared within the group of host companies. Members of either of the two EPRI DR targets can use tailored collaboration money.  Nonmembers can also participate by co-funding. Participants will participate in a user's group where they will share experiences and insights obtained from operating their units with others in the program.

Contact: Doug Herman, 650-855-1057, dherman@epri.com

Additional information on EPRI's $5 million/yr DR program (2 targets), including the microturbine tests, can be found at  http://www.epri.com/gg/newgen/disgen/index.html

Subject: UFTO Note--Hybrid Power Plant (SOFC and MTG)
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 1998


UFTO Note--Hybrid Power Plant (SOFC and MTG)

At the Palm Springs Fuel Cell Seminar (Nov 19), Edison Technology Solutions (ETS) announced plans to demonstrate and lead the commercialization of the first 250 kW "hybrid" generating plant integrating a fuel cell with a microturbine generator.  The first unit, with a 200 kW pressurized SOFC and a 50 kW microturbine, will be installed in mid-1999 at the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at UC Irvine.  Commercial launch is anticipated for 2001.

The hybrid plant will operate at an efficiency of 60 percent and a cost of $1000/kW, i.e. at lower capital costs than a standalone fuel cell, and with twice the efficiency of a standalone micro-turbine.

A variety of hybrid concepts have been discussed for several years by DOE.  ETS is supporting an approach using the pressurized Siemens-Westinghouse tubular SOFC.  It uses the microturbine compressor to pressurize the fuel cell to approximately three atmospheres. Exhaust gas at 1,500 deg F from the fuel cell is then used as the motive force for the microturbine, driving both its compressor and generator. While the plant at the NFCRC will run on natural gas, it is flexible to operate with other fuels. The plant has no detectable nitrogen oxide emissions, and greatly reduces carbon dioxide emissions.

Hospitals, hotels, universities and other customers with high load factors are seen as likely users of the hybrid power plant. ETS will work with utilities and energy service companies to commercialize and deploy the technology.

ETS is offering a proposition to utilities to become part of a focused fast-track commercialization program.  From 5-10 participants will provide development funding in exchange for access to technical information and priority rights to commercialization opportunities. Based on earlier discussions with several prospective customers for the program, ETS is proposing a graduated series of commitment levels.  Companies which commit to the highest level now would be first in line for commercialization rights.

By design, the program will remain flexible as to which brand of microturbine can be used, though the first plant is planned around a Northern Research unit.  For the fuel cell, the entire program is integrally connected to the Westinghouse SOFC.

ETS has an exclusive license to a recent patent with broad claims focused on high speed turbines and pressurized fuel cell operation. ETS also has exclusive worldwide marketing rights to the hybrid power plant (based on the Westinghouse SOFC) up to 500 kW.

Contact:  Jaime Medina,  Edison Technology Solutions
               626-815-0516,  jmedina@edisontec.com

  US 5811201: Power generation system utilizing turbine and fuel cell
   Inventor(s):   Skowronski; Mark J. , Walnut, CA
  Applicant(s):   Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA
  Issued/Filed    Sept. 22, 1998 / Aug. 16, 1996
  Abstract:   A system for generating electricity comprises a fuel cell, a heating stage, and an integral, power generator. The power generator comprises a compressor, an electricity generator and a turbine. Hot exhaust gas from the fuel cell is used for driving the turbine, which in turn drives the generator and the compressor. Both the fuel cell and the generator produce electricity. The compressor is used for compressing air for use in the fuel cell. A portion of the waste heat from the turbine drive gas is used for preheating the air utilized in the fuel cell.

 (Edison Technology Solutions, a non-regulated company of Edison International, develops and markets new technologies, products, and services for the emerging energy and electricity marketplace.)

Subject: UFTO Note - Inverters - State-of-the-Art
Date: Sat, 12 Dec 1998

UFTO Note - Inverters - State-of-the-Art

Sandia's Energy Storage Program has published a new report on power conversion systems which gives a comprehensive overview of the various design approaches, the current state of the art, and recommendations for future development (specifically targeting cost reduction).

The abstract appears below.  I also have an electronic copy of the Executive Summary, which I can provide on request  (specify RTF or HTML format).

To request copies, contact:
Imelda Francis,  505-844-7362, Fax 505-844-6972, igfranc@sandia.gov

Technical contact:
Stan Atcitty, 505-284-2701, satcitt@sandia.gov

   "Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems
       for Energy Conversion Storage Applications"

     Sandia National Labs, SAND98-2019,  September 1998


The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for future research and development.

This report provides:
 - an overview of PCS technology,
 - a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems
   and how they are used in specific applications,
 - a summary of four basic configurations for the power conversion
   systems used in energy storage applications,
 - a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions,
 - a summary of the standards and codes relevant to the technology,
 - recommendations for future research and development.

Subject: UFTO Note-- European utility industry
Date: Sun, 06 Dec 1998


This is a good summary...but what's described here is certainly not unique to Europe.
Anderson leaves out the significance of technology as a competitive differentiator.

Andersen Consulting Research Finds U.S. Utilities Investing in Europe Must Consider New Emerging Landscape

December 4, 1998

LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE) via NewsEdge Corporation -- European Utility Industry Faces Entirely New Market Structure

With the European Union's Electricity Directive set to formally start opening Europe's electricity markets on February 19, 1999, new research from Andersen Consulting suggests that American utilities investing in Europe will be faced with an entirely new market structure within a few years.

"Deregulation and privatization in the EU will unleash numerous economic, political and technological factors which will reshape the entire European utility landscape. The industry will be completely changed by 2015," says Robert A. Anclien, utilities global managing partner for Andersen Consulting. "U.S. utilities investing into Europe must realize traditional assumptions will be meaningless as everything from the dominant forms of power generation to the transmission system will be altered by nimble competitors, new technology, and freely traded energy."

The research, based on extensive interviews with industry executives, regulators and analysts across Europe, concludes that price pressures from electricity-supply competition, new gas-fired co-generation technologies and an improved trans-European gas-supply network will boost gas use and change the way electricity is produced in Europe.

The industry will be completely changed by 2015, according to the research. Large, remote power stations will increasingly be replaced by smaller, cleaner forms of generation located closer to demand, in cities or individual factories, for example. These "demand hubs" in turn will decrease the need for costly, long-distance transmission wires. Emerging will be a single European energy network where gas pipelines and reliability of gas supply actually become more important to providing electricity than high-voltage wires.

"By 2015, we see the gas and electricity industries in Europe converging into a single European energy network," says Gill Rider, Andersen Consulting partner and head of the firm's North Europe utilities practice. "Companies seeking success in this market will need new investment strategies, new skills like energy trading, improved regulatory management and a reliable supply of natural gas."

Evidence for Growth of Gas

The studies point to a number of factors supporting the growth of gas in an open European electricity industry. First, more than 70 percent of the world's supply of natural gas is deliverable into Europe from such gas-rich areas as the North Sea and Russia. Second, new co-generation technology makes some forms of gas-fired electricity generation capable of achieving 65-75% efficiency, compared with 30-40% efficiency with a traditional coal-fired plant. Third, co-generation plants can be built in as little as 18 months. Fourth, a shift toward natural gas is environmentally and aesthetically appealing because it is cleaner-burning and can be transported via underground pipelines instead of above-ground wires.

The research predicts that by 2015, 30-40 percent of European power is likely to be generated using gas, compared with 7.5 percent in 1992.

Utilities Must Rethink Business

To succeed in the emerging European energy market, Europe's gas and electricity companies will have to rethink how they do business, how they are organized and where they invest. Winning companies will be those who define their space in the market early on, rather than wait to be led to it, and who possess the management skills to negotiate far-reaching change.

Flexibility will be key as winners create networked organizations to develop and/or acquire new capabilities through strategic alliances and acquisitions. Deep risk management skills will be necessary to navigate through the numerous political, economic, financial and regulatory uncertainties of a liberalizing industry. Complex energy trading capabilities will be essential because industry profitability increasingly will be determined by decisions made on the trading floor, not in the boardroom. Finally, winning companies will be organized around focused business units, a departure from current governance in the utility industry.

"Tremendous opportunities exist for companies that are willing to view the uncertainties of liberalization as a strategic advantage over the next 15 years," Rider says. "Companies that understand the process of liberalization and are willing to take positions in numerous segments of the industry will be successful over the medium term."

Nationalism Poses Risk to Liberalization

The research also contains a strong warning for Europe's politicians and regulators: the biggest potential barriers to an open European electricity industry are politically motivated policies designed to protect some indigenous industries such as coal and oil in individual EU countries. Politicians and regulators throughout Europe eventually will be forced to resolve their countries' national interests with the EU's intent to create an open energy market.

"As consumers start to see lower energy prices in other countries, governments across Europe will be forced to examine the economic consequences of protectionism on both the country's utilities and its manufacturers," says Rider. "We believe that liberalization will create customer demands for cheaper power that even the most dedicated nationalists and protectionists will have to yield to."

Additional Findings

Additional findings from the research include:

The growth of co-generation will change the structure of power generation. New technology will decrease the barriers to entering generation and enable large industry to partner with energy companies to generate its own power needs. Gas producers will respond to the increasing use of co-generation by moving into power generation.

Supply constraints posed by electricity transmission networks will ease as gas transportation networks grow. The use of gas-fired generation will significantly increase the importance of transporting gas to localized generating facilities, and decrease the need to transmit electricity long distances.

Failure to realize the increasingly important role gas will play in electricity generation leaves incumbent utilities vulnerable to significant loss of market share as their power costs are undercut by new competitors from other countries and industries.

Sophisticated energy trading will become an essential part of the European utility industry as increased competition creates multiple buyers and sellers needing to hedge against market price volatility.

Significant convergence will occur at all levels of the electric and gas industries as common skills such as energy trading, asset management, customer care and billing/metering develop across both industries. Oil companies pose a serious threat to traditional utilities as they are likely to leverage their vast experience in asset management to enter low-risk, asset intensive parts of the utility industry.

Electricity and gas suppliers will increasingly offer a bundle of additional products and services to offset falling margins, more discerning customer demands and low growth. Companies will seek to take integrated positions in fuel sourcing, power generation, trading and customer supply to hedge their risks in these related segments.

Intensive industry consolidation will continue across Europe, making borders less important and increasing difficulties for regulators monitoring the sector. Import dependence and market maturity (per capita gas consumption) will combine to dictate the way in which individual EU countries approach gas liberalization. Countries with high levels of indigenous gas production and/or high consumption are likely to open their markets to competition faster than those with low or no gas reserves and/or low levels of consumption.

The Andersen Consulting Utilities practice provides strategic management and technology consulting to many of the world's largest and most innovative electric, gas and water utilities. Clients include 90 percent of the U.S. utilities listed in the Fortune 500 and two-thirds of the international utilities appearing in the Forbes list of the 500 largest international companies.

Andersen Consulting is a $6.6 billion global management and technology consulting organization whose mission is to help its clients change to be more successful. The organization works with clients from a wide range of industries to link their people, processes and technologies to their strategies. Andersen Consulting has more than 59,000 people in 46 countries. Its home page address is http://www.ac.com.

CONTACT: Douglas W. MacDonald | Andersen Consulting | +1 312 693 7463
| douglas.w.macdonald@ac.com | or | Julia J. Wright | +44 171 304 1812
| julia.j.wright@ac.com


Subject: UFTO Note - Adv Technol Program
Date: Sun, 29 Nov 1998


NIST Adv Technology Program (ATP) Announcements

If you want government funding for your projects, you may want to get familiar with this program, which makes multimillion $ awards for cost shared projects, often to teams of companies, universities and labs.

      ATP website is:    http://www.atp.nist.gov

--1998 Program Awards -- include major projects in "Premium Power"
--1999 Proposal Solicitation and Proposers Conferences

                  1998 AWARDS

On October 7, 1998, NIST announced results of nine ATP competitions conducted in 1998, including a general competition open to proposals from any area of technology and eight competitions in focused technology areas.

If carried through to completion, the 79 projects will be funded at approximately $224 million from private industry, matched by approximately $236 million from the ATP.  The awards are contingent on the acceptance of the awards by the recipients.

Detailed lists and descriptions of the 1998 ATP projects and their participants are available from the ATP World Wide Web site at:

or by contacting NIST Public and Business Affair  at (301) 975-2758.

The 1998 Competition categories were:
   General Competitions
   Photonics Manufacturing
   Premium Power  (** See below)
   Digital Video in Information Networks
   Catalysis and Biocatalysis
   Microelectronics Manufacturing Infrastructure
   Selective-Membrane Platforms
   Tools for DNA Diagnostics
   Adaptive Learning Systems

**1998 Premium Power Awards

 - Preparation and Fundamental Evaluation of Catalytic Materials for Energy Applications
 - Modular 2KVA Fuel Cell Power Plant with Live Replaceable, Self-Hydrating, PEM Smart Cartridges
 - Passive Magnetic Bearings for Power Quality Flywheel Systems
 - Novel Process for High-Efficiency Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules
 - Higher Voltage, Lower Impedance Aerogel Ultracapacitor
 - Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based Upon Nanostructured Active Materials
 - Lightweight, Flexible, High-Efficiency CIS-Alloy Tandem Photovoltaic Devices
 - Reduced-Temperature, Electrode-Supported, Planar (RTESP) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) System for Premium Power Applications
 - Advanced Materials and Processes for Cost-Effective High-Power Ultracapacitor Modules
 - Superstrate to Enable Cost-Effective Solar Electric Power Generation
 - Distributed Premium Power Fuel Cell Systems Incorporating Novel Materials and Assembly Techniques
 - Propane-Fueled Fuel Cell Power System for Telecommunications Applications
 - Advanced Lithium Solid Polymer Battery Development


       1999 COMPETITION

On November 16, ATP announced the opening of its 1999 competition to support innovative, cost-shared industrial research and development. There will be only one single solicitation this year, open to all technology areas.  The ATP has approximately $66 million dollars in fiscal year 1999 for first- year funding of new projects.
        Full Proposals Due:        3p.m. Eastern Time April 14, 1999

Applicants may, if they wish, submit abbreviated pre-proposals to the ATP to receive feedback from the ATP as to suitability of the proposed project. Starting in FY1999, ATP will accept and provide feedback to pre-proposals throughout the year. However, ATP suggests that pre-proposals be submitted at least two months prior to the full proposal deadline to allow the proposer enough time to incorporate feedback into a 1999 proposal.

Proposers' Conferences -- The first one was held in Atlanta on 11/17/98.  Repeats of the 1/2 day sessions will be held at NIST in Gaithersburg, MD on Dec 15, and in San Francisco on January 11.

A complete collection of the ATP Proposers' Conference presentations is available on line, along with the 1999 Proposal Preparation Kit.

Hardcopies can be obtained from ATP by phone 1-800-ATP-FUND or 1-800-287-3863.


Subject: UFTO Note - CURC Annual Conf. 11/98
Date: Mon, 23 Nov 1998

        California Utility Research Council
          Annual Technology Conference
             November 2-4, 1998
               Costa Mesa CA

Background Information -----------------

-------  Who is CURC? -------
CURC (California Utility Research Council) was established by the California Legislature (Public Utilities Code, Sections 9201-9203) in 1984 to:

- Promote consistency of utility RD&D programs with state energy policy
- Prevent unnecessary duplication of research efforts
- Encourage the free exchange of information related to utility RD&D projects where appropriate
- Identify opportunities for research coordination between energy utilities and for joint funding of RD&D projects of benefit to California ratepayers

CURC Board includes representatives from the CPUC, CEC, PG&E, SDG&E, SCE, and SoCalGas.  [Recently, a new category of "Associate Member" was created, and includes CIEE, CMUA, EPRI, GRI, LADWP and SMUD.]
               Website ----   http://www.curc.org

-------  Restructuring and Public Interest R&D -------
Restructuring of the electric and natural gas industries is having a dramatic effect on the energy RD&D landscape in California. Previously, most of this work was funded by ratepayers and managed by the four largest investor-owned California utilities: PG&E, SCE, SDG&E, and SoCalGas. Supplemental funding for California RD&D interests was provided by GRI, EPRI, and Federal Agencies.

Restructuring is providing new opportunities for collaboration of energy RD&D efforts. Recent California legislation (AB1890) has made available $62.5 million per year for public interest energy RD&D to be managed by the California Energy Commission (CEC). Utilities will continue to fund ratepayer RD&D activities, although on a lesser scale. It is also expected that there will be an increasing interest in shareholder-funded technologies by energy companies seeking a competitive advantage. Finally, restructuring will have a direct effect on programs offered by EPRI, GRI, and perhaps even Federal Agencies.

-------  Purpose ------
- To help attendees better understand how all of the energy RD&D pieces fit together in a restructured environment.
- To provide participants with an overview of technology trends and energy RD&D collaboration activities which benefit California.
- A first hand look at how the California PIER (Public Interest Energy Research), Renewables, and Energy Efficiency programs are being implemented.
- Opportunities to network directly with peers and funding agencies.


                Highlights from the Conference

- Keynote : "California's Electric Restructuring: a Stunning but Secret Success"
Phil Romero, Chief Economist, Office of the Governor, outlined how rapidly the transformation of California's electric industry has proceeded and the significant benefits already being realized.  He summarized the "deal" struck between all players on stranded assets and rates (recently upheld by the defeat of Proposition 9), and replied to some of the criticisms -- there are consumer choice, numerous competitors, and longer term benefits of a renewed generation base, new energy services, and the chance for California to be a winner in world energy service markets.
One surprise was the high price paid in auctions of the fossil power plants. On average, they have sold for 2.5 times more than anticipated.  The CEC had expected a “fire” sale.  Book value seems to be irrelevant--the underlying issue seems to be the cost to rebuild at a greenfield sight.
California needs to prepare for a population that is expected to double within the next 25 years.

- Keynote:  Telecomm RD&D Transition
Peter Magill, Bell Labs reviewed what happened to Bell Labs as AT&T was broken up in the 1980's, and how the R&D evolved.  Under the regulated monopoly, R&D was decoupled from the needs of the business.  Interest and dollars dipped and work became much more targeted under the local operating companies and long distance provider. Now Lucent, the new owner of Bell Labs, dedicates 1% of revenues to an agile and strategic research program, and regards it as critical to their success.  He noted the complex array of technologies and markets that are converging now in the telecomm industry, and outlined the opportunities for energy utilities to play.  In particular, they have no legacy networks to overcome, and have the chance to leapfrog technologically, avoiding a "me-too" approach.

-- National R&D Needs and Programs

 - EPRI - an overview of EPRI's continuing process of providing more options, and exploring new ways of providing services.

 - GRI -  FY 1999 R&D Plan is on their website (www.gri.org).  GRI has just done a major reorganization with business units focused on customer segments, and offering staff services on a competitive basis.  GRI’s traditional funding mechanisms are disappearing, so they are looking at new business models.

 - Livermore and Idaho National Labs - representatives presented overviews of their programs.  LLNL sees their advanced computing for weapons modeling as a capability that can make contributions in energy, and expect hydrogen to play a major role in the future.  INEEL offers capabilities in environmental management and systems integration, and Lockheed Martin has strong incentives to work with industry and commercialize technology under its management contract.


-- California Utility R&D Perspective

1998 is the last year of ratepayer funded research by electric utilities in California, as the transition proceeds (with the CEC public interest programs--see below).  Corporate R&D departments have been disbanded, and the function decentralized completely into separate business units, for each to pursue according to their own priorities.  Human and financial resources are declining dramatically, and there is little or no coordination among departments.

PG&E - In 1999, R&D funding will come from  foreign utilities, the CEC PIER program, co-funding, and department operating funds.  R&D must compete with maintenance projects for funding, and is expected to be about 1/4 of 1998 levels.  Current programs of interest include:  Information technology, Environmental impacts and compliance, Real time data for customer decisions, Life extension, Pipeline rehabilitation, Fitness for service?better utilization of assets, and Underground construction activities.  Needs include:  Reducing the time to bring technologies to the field, Producing products in a shorter timeframe, Looking to others for fundamental research. PG&E expressed concern over loss of in-house expertise.  There is a need to collaborate and work with other utilities/research organizations toward reaching common goals.

San Diego Gas & Electric - R&D funding is now focused on technology development and application for core business.  A four to five year time horizon for a new product is too long.  Programs must focus on the near term ? one to two years.  SDG&E has interest in programs that increase system reliability, improves performance, and minimizes service.

So Cal Edison - In 1997, SCE spent $30 million in R&D related activities.  The 1998 budget was $1.5 million.  It has disbanded its research department.  Research activities are being conducted by the business units and Edison Technology Solutions, which is a new unregulated unit competing for R&D funding, notably the CEC PIER program.  With strong affiliate transaction restrictions in effect, ETS and SCE must keep very separate, and carefully handle any contacts between them.

Sacramento Municipal Utility District - Unlike the IOUs, SMUD’s R&D programs are stable.  They are spending 3.7% of their revenues on R&D.  SMUD is interested in photovoltaics for parking lots and rooftops and renewable programs. SMUD’s R&D funds are committed, but they welcome collaborations.  They will use their funds, others will have to use their funds.  Current areas of interest include:  landfill gas, fuel cells, microturbines, and wind.

All the utilities represented at this meeting are looking for third party funding—federal, state, partnering arrangements.  Utilities can supply test beds for new products and systems, and are interested in collaborative research.


-- Environmental R&D

California EPA  - is a family of regulatory bodies, including the Air Resources and Water Resources Boards.  The Innovative Clean Air Technology Program (ICAT) has been set up to help new technologies thru the "valley of death" by providing funding, guidance, and certification for new technologies trying to become commercial.

South Coast Air Quality Management District - In So. Calif, 88% of NOx and two-thirds of VOC emissions from mobile sources.  The SCAQM spends nearly $5 Million per year to advance new technology solutions to air quality--priorities include fuel cells, electric/hybrid vehicles, and stationery VOC source reduction.  They look for cost-sharing, and will accept unsolicited sole-source proposals.

CEC Environmental R&D - The CEC has its own role in supporting energy related environmental R&D focused on improved siting and regulatory decisionmaking.  Topics include upper atmosphere NOx transport modeling, avian mortality and wind turbines, and power plant water sources.


CEC - Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)

(Extensive information is available at   http://www.energy.ca.gov/research

Questions regarding PIER should be directed to Mike Batham
              of the Commission's Energy Development Division at:
               916-654-4548,    MBatham@energy.state.ca.us

PIER is for "public interest" not for regulated utility or competitive research, though it is recognized that the boundary is fuzzy.

Stage I is nearly complete, and Stage II is about to start.

In Stage I, three 1998 solicitations have been completed, with 83 projects approved for funding totaling $53 million through June 1999 (FY).
- One-time Transition Project Funding, for up to one year to continue ongoing (ratepayer-funded) public interest energy RD&D projects
- 1st General Solicitation funding, for projects in Environmental, Advanced Generation and Renewable Research
- 2nd General Solicitation funding, in End Use Efficiency and Strategic Research

UFTO has an electronic version of the complete listing of these projects that was handed out at the conference.
It is available on the UFTO website, or on request.  Send an email to   pierprojects@ufto.com

1998 CEC PIER Project Funding Awards

Other accomplishments include establishment of the "Small Grants" program ( $2.5 Million for grants up to $75K each for concept development--announcement due soon, with grants early in '99).  Also, membership in seven EPRI targets has been approved ($1.5 Million).

PIER has a 14 member Policy Advisory Council with representation of industry, universities, government and environmental groups.

Stage II Funding is organized around six Program Areas,  with a staff team for each area. The team leaders, which in some cases are interim at this time, are listed in the respective program area.

- Industrial/Agricultural/Water -- John Sugar,  916-654-4563
- Residential and Commercial Buildings -- Nancy Jenkins,  916-654-4739
- Energy-Related Environmental Research -- Bob Eller,  916-654-4930
- Environmentally-Preferred Adv. Gen. -- Mike Batham,  916-654-4548
- Renewables -- George Simons,  916-654-4659
- Strategic -- Tom Tanton,  916-654-4930

Each team has compiled a list of high-level issues, based on input from focus groups, the Policy Advisory Council, and the Commissioners. These draft issues are still a work-in-progress as the teams proceed with the next steps: (1) identification of program goals and objectives; (2) prioritization of technical issues corresponding to the high-level issues; and (3) funding options and strategies. (Note: The complete document is available online and as an Acrobat pdf file).

CEC claims it has “streamlined” the contracting process.  The Commissioner admitted that the contracts offered previously were difficult to accept.  A team has recently reviewed and modified the terms and conditions (T&C’s).  The T&C’s now used are in the best interests of the program—not the State's.  Modifications will be very difficult to get in the next solicitation.  It was strongly recommended that the T&Cs be reviewed before preparing a bid, and be ready to accept them if selected for an award.

The next solicitation opportunity is tentatively scheduled to be released late winter (likely in February).  A series of solicitations will address clearly defined target areas.  There is no policy in place for reviewing, approving, or handling unsolicited proposals, and they are distinctly not encouraged.  Would-be applicants probably would do well to contact CEC program staff informally to explore their ideas.

Criteria include: eligible organizations, public interest benefits in California, technical merit, credible team and schedule, policy fit -- scores by independent evaluators are weighted, added and ranked.  Matching funds can be zero if benefits are 100% public--must increase in proportion to non-public benefits.

NOTE:  A proposal does not have to be submitted by a California company, nor does it have to be performed in California.  There is no “favorable weighting” for California companies in the PIER program.  The program, however, must clearly benefit California rate payers.  The program requires matching funds.  There will be a PIER workshop in January or February.


The Other Public Benefit Programs

There are two other major "public benefit" programs that were established under AB1890 restructuring that represent a much larger $ resource than PIER -- Renewable Technology, and Energy Efficiency.  Presentations and discussions explored how these programs bridge to or overlap with PIER.

-- Renewable Technology Program    (www.energy.ca.gov/renewables)

AB1890 provided for $540 Million ( of the "Public Good Charge" to be collected from the IOUs) to support existing, new and emerging technologies, and SB90 codified recommended allocation and distribution mechanisms.  Basically, there are four separate "accounts" (existing, emerging and new technologies, and consumer-side), all of which provide some form of "buy-down" for renewable generation, with no participation in any form of RD&D.  The purpose is to encourage the renewables industry to accept and promote new renewable technology.

-- Energy Efficiency   (www.cbee.org)

The Calif. Board for Energy Efficiency (CBEE) is a Board established by the CPUC to administer these funds--roughly 10 times the budget for PIER.  Under "standard performance contracts, payments are made for measurable energy savings achieved by installation of specific energy-efficiency projects.  Savings must be measured and installations verified under standardized program rules.  There are also "market transformation" programs providing commercial downstream incentives, LED traffic signal standards, commercial surveys, and a demonstration programs for a premium efficiency relocatable classroom.  Nearly 1/3 of the funds will go towards residential programs, e.g. contractor training and labeling programs.   Contact Mark Thayer,  619-594-5510

-- Bridging PIER (R&D) and the Renewables/Efficiency Programs
    California Institute for Energy Efficiency      http://eetd.lbl.gov/CIEE/
   (CIEE plans, funds and manages a statewide energy R&D program)

CIEE outlined some their own programs, and offered ideas to bridge the gaps between R&D and these two programs.  PIER can't support demonstrations unless they "add to the knowledge", and the CBEE needs more latitude for emerging technology.  PIER needs to awareness of market needs.  There is a need to prove cost effectiveness to market participants, etc.

An important element for bridging the gap is the multi-year program strategy that enables orderly transitions from R&D to demos to commercial use.  Multi year projects should have advisory committees, direct involvement by market representatives, and deliberate plans for disseminating results in appropriate venues.  CIEE also recommends that research be done directly on market processes themselves--barriers, incentives and decisionmaking.
Contact: Jim Cole, CIEE Director,  510-486-5380,  jwcole@lbl.gov


Calif. Trade and Commerce Agency, Office of Strategic Technology (OST)
Pasadena CA        http://goldstrike.net

Steve Jarvis, 626-568-9437,  sjarvis@goldstrike.com
Richard Keeler,   "      "

This agency provides resources, support, funding and access to various state and federal programs to help California companies to be successful and compete globally.  OST partners with other organizations that seek to help the formation of partnerships and enable industry to move forward.  A total investment 5 year investment approaching $1 Billion has been realized, leveraging funds from federal, state and private sources.

Companies seeking help must meet strict criteria as businesses (i.e. not just technology), much as venture capital investors require.

OST programs include the Calif Technology Investment Partnership, Regional Technology Alliances, Calif. Manufacturing Technology Program, Calif. Information Infrastructure, and NSF Research Centers.


Other agenda items included:

A series of presentations of a sample of PIER funded research projects:
   - Waste water and agricultural technology demonstrations
   - Monitoring and Diagnostic system for Commercial Buildings
   - Global Climate Change--scenarios and analysis
   - Low emission Gas Turbine Combustor for Distributed Gen.
   - Photovoltaic system implementation

Customer view of RD&D Needs
   - Calif. Manufacturers Assoc.
        (want certain end in 2002 of ratepayer funded R&D)
        (suggest a number of energy conservation items for work til then)
   - Applicant Design of Gas and Electric Distribution systems
        (evolving to include private ownership and O&M, with many
           resulting legal, regulatory and technical issues)

Panel Discussion on Improving Collaborative RD&D Processes

Past Successes of CEC and IOU research (under the old framework)


Subject: UFTO Note - New Carbon Management Report
Date: Thu, 12 Nov 1998

New Carbon Management Report

DOE has assessed fundamental research needs in carbon management through a series of workshops. A new report based on information from those workshops and other background materials is available on the Internet. The report identifies targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for reducing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

It covers five topic areas:

1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization;
2) hydrogen development and fuel cells;
3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle;
4) biomass production and utilization; and
5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, andutilization.

The report is down loadable in a .pdf format from the Office of Science (Energy Research) website under the link in the website entitled "Carbon Management Research Needs".     http://www.er.doe.gov/

Contact: John Houghton, (301) 903-8288,  John.Houghton@oer.doe.gov


Subject: UFTO Note - Distrib Power Meeting; Interconnection Stds
Date: Sun, 08 Nov 1998

The Distributed Power Coalition of America (DPCA) is holding its annual meeting this week in Washington, with a special session on Interconnection Issues.

The website is quite informative...see material below, and go to --   http://www.dpc.org/events/annual98/agenda.html

In addition (as will be discussed in detail at the meeting), the IEEE standards activity in this area has become quite intense.  There was a preliminary session in St. Louis last month in conjunction with the IEEE-IAS Society meeting.
"IEEE-SCC21" Standards Development Coordinations for Fuel Cells, PV, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage"

Meeting is scheduled for Dec 9-11, also in Washington

Chair is Dick DeBlasio of NREL, 303-384-6452,  dick_deblasio@nrel.gov

For a registration form contact:  Kim Taylor   Conference Coordinator, 303-275-4358,  kimberly_taylor@nrel.gov

Meeting will coordinate development of consensus standards within the IEEE-SCC21 committee and its working groups.  Emphasis will be placed on technology-specific standards, needs, standards project development, and establishment of working groups.  Standards such as utility interconnection and testing protocols will be addressed and coordinated.

SCC-21's role was expanded in June to merge SCC23 (dispersed storage and generation) and SCC21 (PV)

(As of this writing, I couldn't find anything about this on the internet.)


Thursday, Nov. 12, 1998
 "Preparing for the Millennium of Distributed Generation"

Industry-Wide Summit on Interconnection
Friday, Nov. 13, 1998
 "Interconnection Issues for Distributed Generation"

Hilton Crystal City at National Airport Washington, DC

Opening Reception Crystal City Hilton
Wednesday, Nov. 11, 1998 6:00 - 7:30 p.m. Everyone Welcome!

The Distributed Power Coalition of America was launched in 1997 as an advocacy group to promote the use of distributed power generation in the marketplace. Small-scale units that produce electricity closer to the customer are becoming an economic reality. Compared to spot prices of $10,000/MWh this summer, distributed generation technology makes good sense--even if only used for limited periods of time!

Our annual meeting this year features a number of exciting case studies about the economic reality of these options in today's market. These include advanced turbine systems, microturbines in real-life multiple settings, the combination of cutting edge technology to resolve reliability issues, and fuel cells for individual homes. Please check out the enclosed program brochure!

In addition, we are sponsoring a one-day industry-wide summit meeting on interconnection. This event brings together, for the first time, all of the major groups working on this issue--DOE, CADER, GRI, EPRI and IEEE--including case reports from working groups on standards for fuel cells and photovoltaics. This meeting may be the most comprehensive held to date to discuss how these new technologies will connect to the existing electricity grid. If you have a stake in this issue, you need to be there!

So sign up early, as hotel space is limited. We look forward to seeing you at what promises to be the most important networking event in distributed generation this year!


Wayne Gardner DPCA Chair DPCA Executive Director
Sarah McKinleyDPCA Executive Director


Subject: UFTO Note - Cold Fusion Quietly Continues
Date: Thu, 29 Oct 1998

In one of the most balanced and thorough discussions I've seen, the new issue Wired Magazine has a feature article this month (November, 1998,  "6.11") that reviews the history and current events of cold fusion research.  "What If Cold Fusion Is Real?", by Charles Platt, looks into the continuing work and tantalizing experimental evidence from all around the world.

A decade ago, after a brief wild explosion of world excitement, the scientific establishment was very quick to label it a fraud after numerous big labs were unable to reproduce any effect.

Today, a few hardy souls still continue the work.  Many have seen excess heat and other indications of new phenomena.  The difficulty is that no-one has quite figured out what makes it work sometimes and not others, a serious impediment for the reproduceability that the scientific method relies on so heavily.

The situation is complicated by the presence of a number of quacks and new agers, and a new fascination with nuclear transformation ("the end of rad waste!!") that has divided the already small worldwide community.  Still, there are respected bonafide scientists who've seen results and take them seriously, even if explanations are in short supply.  Interestingly, it's mostly older people who persist--younger scientists would do real damage to their professional careers by mentioning the subject.  And, there's little or no funding.

The article does a nice job of explaining the corner that cold fusion's been painted into.  Since nearly all scientific journals categorically refuse to publish anything on the subject, it's difficult for good research on the subject to get heard.  The hundreds of reported experimental observations make no difference.  They are just dismissed with little or no honest scrutiny.

The best hope seems to be in the hands of a few venture-investor backed small companies, who apparently will be taken seriously only when they can put a commercial device on the market.  The trouble is, there's a lot of basic science to do first, and the very limited resources might not be able to go the whole way from lab to commercial device.

One such firm is discussed in the article, CETI, who dramatically demonstrated a device in public at the PowerGen conference in 1995.  Since then, they've had trouble getting the same performance. They say only that their first batch of material worked, but not later ones, and they don't know why.

Notably absent from the article is the high profile Blacklight Power  (www.blacklightpower.com), which reportedly refuses all interviews, but claims to have an entirely new physics as a basis for its cold fusion process.  Also missing is Eneco, the Salt Lake City firm that UFTO relies on for help in tracking developments in the field.  Eneco prefers to stay out of the press, and is working quietly on its own approach.

Eneco actually helped Mr. Platt, and arranged for him to attend the ICCF-7 (7th Annual International Conference on Cold Fusion) in Vancouver, April 1998.  The proceedings for this conference are now available for $50 a copy.  Contact ICCF-7 c/o Eneco, 801-583-2000, fax 801-583-6245,  jaeger@enecco-usa.com.

Subject: UFTO Note - Substation Power Quality System
Date: Sun, 25 Oct 1998


UFTO Note -Substation Power Quality System

Sandia is developing a proposal for a Substation Power Quality System (SPQS) project and needs industry input.  Attached below are the text of a powerpoint presentation and a list of questions. There hasn't been much involvement yet from utilities, so UFTO companies are especially encouraged to respond directly to Sandia with comments.   The central question now appears to be: "Are utilities or large end users interested in a substation level power quality system?". (There will also be a presentation at the PowerSystems World '98 conference in Santa Clara, CA on Nov. 11.)

The DOE Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia has been working with industry and other laboratories for several years on storage systems for substation power quality applications.

Over the last three years, DOE and Sandia worked closely with Public Service of New Mexico on a project with the intent of developing and demonstrating a substation power quality system.  Industry partnerships were to be formed for the development phase, and a demonstration site was chosen at Sandia. Recent market downturns coupled with turmoil in the electric utility industry prevented the completion of this project. The DOE Energy Storage Program is still committed to working with industry on the development and testing of substation level, mid-voltage power quality systems.

The system as currently conceived would operate at the 12-15 kV, 2-6 MVA level. It would correct power quality problems originating upstream of the substation in the transmission line system or downstream in adjacent distribution system feeder lines.  Open questions exist regarding the required ride-through time, technology to be employed, and the location for such a demonstration. This is anticipated to be a three-year project. The intent is to form a cost shared partnership to design, construct and field a system in this power range.

Sandia is very interested in obtaining comments on the Utility and Electricity provider industry interest in such a project, and feedback from energy storage system suppliers on the technology available for this type of system.

-------------(text of powerpoint vugraphs)--------
Substation Power Quality Project

Dean Rovang, Abbas Akhil, John Boyes
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

(Oct. 7, 1998, ESA Fall '98 Meeting, Atlanta, GA)

-- Why Are We Here?
Discuss the ESS/SNL perspective on a Sub-station Power Quality System (SPQS)
Past motivation and future expectations
History of project at SNL with PNM
SNL's performance expectations for PQ system
Obtain industry perspective
Industry perspective on SPQS market
Industry needs of system performance:
  Power level, ride through, footprint
Describe SNL's expectations for further work
Competitive, cost-shared proposals
RFI followed by RFP

-- Past Motivation
PNM's experience with large hi-tech customers in their service area
Traditional UPS solutions did not solve all PQ problems
PNM was seeking a utility-level solution
SNL advocated a SMES solution at a mid-voltage level
SNL Superconductivity Program
Preliminary thinking indicated 1 - 2 second ride through was adequate

-- Project History
PNM and SNL formed an Industrial Advisory Board (IAB)
Primarily semiconductor manufacturers
Define system performance requirements
1 - 2 second ride through was thought to be adequate
"Baseline" PQ system concept with 2 second ride through
12.47 kV, 22.4 MVA
SMES system size was 42 MJ

-- Other IAB input
Cost must not only be competitive, but aggressively competitive
Not UPS, limited ride through
It protects entire load, people expect lower $/kVA
Demonstrate device at someone else's facility
Some factors motivated rethinking project scope
Cost estimates of $17 million for baseline system
4 second sag recorded at customer site

-- Revised Baseline system was proposed
SNL advocated idea of "meaningful yet supportable" demonstration
6 MVA size: matches SNL loads
Split-bus concept at Substation 41
Use battery to reduce cost and meet ride through requirements
SNL and PNM pursued CRADA for demonstration at SNL site
CRADA package was prepared but not executed
Project canceled

Mid-voltage level is the next logical step in the evolution
     of PQ systems
Industry wants to develop SPQS technology
Provides vehicle for Utilities to deliver Premium Power
Whole facilities and multiple customers can be protected
     in a Premium Power Park concept
Utility will have control of PQ system at the substation level
Short power interruptions can be corrected at one place
Voltage sags are not always corrected by existing systems
Economy of scale

-- Substation Power Quality System:
Correct voltage sags/swells and momentary outages from transmission lines or
adjacent feeder lines

-- SNL Expectations for Future SPQS
Interconnection voltage: 12 - 15 kV
System power: 2 - 6 MVA
Ride through options:
2 - 8 seconds for voltage sags
up to 30 seconds for 3rd re-closer requirements
1/4 cycle switch time
Storage technology insensitive
Turnkey system
Modular design, outdoor installation
Self-contained energy storage module(s) - eliminate need for building
Minimize footprint

Demonstration preferred at customer site; alternately at SNL
Innovative power conversion and system design
Prefer not paralleling existing small systems to meet performance
Encourage formation of user/supplier consortia
Cost-sharing of 50-80% by industry
SNL contribution expected to be $1.5-2.0 M over 3 years
Time to demonstration - 3 years
Place contract in FY99
System build FY00
System installation and testing FY01

Questions For The Utility/Electricity Provider Industry

1. Are Power Quality solutions at the substation location
   useful to you?
2. What voltage(s), in mid-voltage range, are of interest?
3. What is the minimum power level of interest?
4. What power quality events should this system address?
5. What ride through time should this system be capable of
6. What problems would this system create that must be addressed
   in the design phase? Reconnection? Siting? Safety? Control?
   Maintenance? Etc.?
7. What type of sites would benefit from this system?
8. Are there any potential sites in your system?
9. Are you interested in hosting the site?
10. Do you see the need for this system now?  In the near
    term (1-3 years)?  In the long term (>3 years)?
11. What would be a cost goal for such a system?

Questions for the Power Quality System Industry

1. Are the technical specifications in the ballpark?
2. Is the schedule estimate in the ballpark?
3. What are the technical issues in the proposed system?
4. Are the power electronics for the mid-voltage specification
   ready for commercialization?  If not what is the state of
   the art?
5. What are the cost drivers of a mid-voltage Power
   Quality system?
6. Who should perform the system integration function?

Questions for All

1. What kind of partnerships/consortia/collaborations could
   be formed to pursue this system? Cost Sharing? Intellectual
   property rights? Project responsibility? Etc.?
2. What other information is necessary for your company to
   participate in this project?
3. What other information is necessary to start this project?
4. Other questions or comments:

___ Indicate if you would like emailed summaries of ESA meeting discussion
         and future communications on the SPQS project.

Please Return to:  John D. Boyes, Sandia National Laboratories
  Telephone:  (505) 845-7090      Fax:  (505) 844-7874
  Email:        jdboyes@sandia.gov

Subject: UFTO Note - Reliability TF Final Report
Date: Thu, 08 Oct 1998


Electric System Reliability Task Force Completes Final Report

On Tuesday, September 29, the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board's (SEAB) Task Force on Electric System Reliability conducted its final meeting in Washington, DC and approved its final report.

The Task Force's final 150 page report, "Maintaining Reliability in a Competitive U.S. Electricity Industry: Final Report of the Task Force on Electric System Reliability," dated September 29, 1998, addresses the critical institutional, technical and policy issues related to maintaining bulk-power system reliability in the context of a more competitive electric industry. It will be submitted to the Chairman of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board and Secretary Richardson following the incorporation of the final Task Force review comments.

Copies of the final report will be available to the public by Friday, October 9, 1998 at the SEAB website at: www.hr.doe.gov/seab,  in pdf format.  (I have this file if you have problems getting it there--send me an email).

Printed copies of the Report can be obtained from Richard Burrow, SEAB, (202/586-1709 or Richard.Burrow@hq.doe.gov).

Inquiries regarding the Report can be directed to Paul Carrier (202/586-5659 or Paul.Carrier@hq.doe.gov).

Here is a Reuters news story about the report:
Competition won't hurt power reliability, DOE told
WASHINGTON, Sept 29 (Reuters) -

A Department of Energy advisory panel on Tuesday said opening the nation's bulk-power markets to competition should not damage reliability of electric supply, although deregulation is a complex task.

Ending a 21-month investigation, the DOE task force concluded that the "viability and vigor of commercial markets must not be unnecessarily restricted," and market forces now being implemented depend on fair and open access to the transmission grid.

"The traditional reliability institutions and processes that have served the nation well in the past need to be modified to ensure the reliability is maintained in a competitively neutral fashion," the task force report said.

The group, officially called the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board's Task Force on Electric System Reliability, was formed to address the question of whether consumers would be able to count on electricity service after restructuring.

The task force began its work as a result of concerns raised after power outages in Western states during the summer of 1996. It is chaired by Dr. Philip Sharp, a lecturer in public policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

The final report was sent to Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson, who said the findings would act as a guide for the administration and Congress as they formulate electricity competition legislation.

At the time the task force was formed, the DOE asked the group to define an agenda "to address relevant technology development and analysis tools, control schemes, operating practices and data requirements for ensuring reliability under changing industry structure and regulation."

The report also said there is uncertainty regarding statutory and regulatory authority over reliability management, which was being exacerbated by the unbundling of vertically integrated utility functions.

The group said commercial markets should develop economic practices consistent with the mutual interests of the participants, ensuring grid reliability maintenance.

The role of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) must also adapt to an increasingly decentralized and competitive industry, the report said. The NERC represents wholesale power systems in 10 regions in the U.S. and most of Canada.

Saying it was practical to build on reliability standards developed by NERC, the report found "these standards as well as the reliability councils' systems of governance must be modified to accommodate the complexities of competitive markets."

Other findings praised the implementation of Independent System Operators, and said competitive markets should be created for ancillary services, like load following, spinning reserve and loss replacement.

Of the numerous recommendations supplied by the task force, the report highlighted the group's confidence that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and a restructured North American Electric Reliability Organization can maintain performance.

During the transition from monopoly markets to open competition, the task force said electric utilities should open their transmission systems to others and in many cases divest their generating assets.

"The task force is especially interested in seeing the reliability institutions becoming truly independent of commercial interests so that their reliability plans and actions are -- and are seen to be -- unbiased and untainted by the economic interests of any set of bulk-power marketparticipants," the report said.


Subject: UFTO Note -Distrib Cogen Envir Projects Development
Date: Tue, 06 Oct 1998


Distributed Cogen Environment Projects Development

The following is a portion of a recent press release describing a new project development initiative that has attracted a lot of high level attention and is quickly expanding nationally and internationally.  The main feature of these projects is that they use gas turbines as cogenerators in applications where electricity, heat or steam are used to solve an environmental or process need.

The principals of Powercell On-Site Energy inform me that since this press release, they've raised $3 million and are moving forward rapidly to establish additional alliances with other companies in other regions of the country, and to proceed with the first of several major projects.

There are ample opportunities for investment and participation in a variety of ways.  Contact  J.R. Forbes, Powercell On-Site Energy Systems, Modesto CA, phone/fax 209-5458858

Energy Company Alliance Targets Distributed Power
--Sept. 17, 1998--

Five energy industry companies today announced the formation of "The Monterey Bay Alliance" to jointly offer a "total solution" package of cost- effective, environmentally-sound products and services that meet the power needs of customers in a wide range of industries.

The alliance is already pursuing several projects and has identified a number of other strong opportunities.

The Companies forming the Alliance are Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA; Enron Energy Services, Inc., Houston, TX; Harding Lawson Associates Inc., Novato, CA; POWERCELL On-site Energy Systems Inc., Modesto, CA.; and Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Canada.

Focused on distributed generation, the Alliance solutions will feature Pratt & Whitney Canada industrial gas turbines, linked to one or more process systems, and Catalytica's XONON(TM) air emission-control technology. "The Alliance will be able to provide innovative, low emissions energy solutions to end-users in the light manufacturing, commercial, and institutional sectors," said Thomas E. White, Vice Chairman of Enron Energy Services, Inc., an Alliance company. "There is a clear need for distributed power systems that provide multiple energy products, incorporating breakthrough emission controls, at a competitive total cost."

Applications may include wastewater treatment plants, food processing facilities, desalinization installations, new commercial and industrial land developments, hospitals, cold storage warehousing, office buildings, and educational institutions. For example, a power user might recognize the need for a more reliable supply of electric power, but see significant economic and environmental challenges to acquiring an on-site power generation capability. The Alliance plans to solve these problems by using advanced gas turbines in cogeneration or trigeneration cycles to significantly reduce total energy costs, while applying Catalytica's XONON(TM) combustion technology to limit emissions of NOx, a primary air pollutant, to less than 3 parts per million. The Alliance can tailor its services to customer needs, ranging from supplying a basic cogen set, to a total energy system financed, constructed, owned, operated, and maintained by Alliance companies.

POWERCELL will serve as the prime developer for the Alliance, and Harding Lawson will provide system design, engineering and construction services. Pratt & Whitney Canada will supply the gas turbines. Catalytica will supply its XONON(TM) system for ultra-low NOx air emissions. Enron Energy Services Inc. will supply the natural gas for the gas turbines, sell and distribute any excess electricity and make financing available to selected projects.

Subject: UFTO Note - Environ. Capital Forum, Chicago Oct 22
Date: Mon, 05 Oct 1998
CC: "McCabe, Loch ECN" <ecn@bizserve.com>

Environ. Capital Forum - Chicago  10/22/98

 --> UFTO Utilities are especially invited to attend this event.  Be sure to pass this along as appropriate in your company

Here is a notice for a venture forum in Chicago the week after next. Attendance is strictly limited to "qualified investors".

You may recall an UFTO Note (Dec. 2, 97) about the ECN West Coast Forum held in San Francisco January 30, 1998.  There will be another SF session in Feb 99.

 ---> Also note below a separate "invitation only" event --project financing.

For more information about the ECN (Environmental Capital Network), check their website at   http://www.bizserve.com/ecn

To register, contact:  Loch McCabe   734-996-8387,   mccabe@recycle.com
Environmental Capital Forum -- Promising Technology Companies

On October 21-22, 1998, the East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will introduce investors to selected companies commercializing a range of industrial process, energy, and other environmental technologies, products and services. The Forum will feature fourteen early- and expansion-stage companies that were selected based upon the strengths of their technologies, their markets and their management teams.

  Congress Plaza Hotel and Convention Center
  520 South Michigan Ave., across from Grant Park in Chicago.

A Reception hosted by Coopers & Lybrand LLP will be held at the same location during the evening of October 21, 1998. The Forum will last from 8 am to 3 pm on October 22, 1998.

This specialized forum will capitalize on a growing investor interest in innovative technologies that enhance both industrial productivity and environmental quality. It will introduce the following promising companies to investors, and provide investors with opportunities to network with each other. A summary of the presenting companies by sector is below:


· Firm is commercializing an innovative, zero-emissions, high energy fuel cell technology.
· Firm is developing a leading electrochromic technology for building & transportation windows.
· Firm is expanding production of an electric motorbike.
· Firm is commercializing unique glazing material that reversibly turns windows from clear to white.


· Firm is expanding production of robotic metal working systems for industrial markets.
· Firm is commercializing novel thermal induction technology to treat and dispose of medical waste.
· Firm is producing advanced composite materials used in the construction, building trade and furniture industries.
· Firm is producing aerobic bio-reactor that pre-treats wastewater in food processing and other industrial settings.
· Firm is building plant to convert waste plastic into high quality diesel fuel.


· Firm is commercializing revolutionary process to remove hazardous organic contaminants from groundwater.
· Firm is building first US automated transit system using low pressure air to propel lightweight vehicles.
· Firm is commercializing environmental software for power facilities, airports and similar institutions.
· Firm is expanding production of composite reinforced plastic materials utilizing fiber waste.
· Firm is commercializing innovative characterization technology specifically adapted for nuclear waste.

The Forum's Business Selection Committee was composed of prominent investors actively involved in the industry, including Ms. Stacy Gray of First Analysis Corp. (Chicago, IL); Mr. Ethan Stambler of Advent International Corporation (Boston, MA); Mr. Tony Biddle of Zolfo Cooper Capital (New York, NY); Mr. Nicholas Parker of Technology Development Corp. (Toronto, Ontario); Mr. Tony Lent of EA Capital (New York, NY); Mr. Samuel Hope of Asset Renewal Services (Milwaukee, WI); Mr. Bradley Whitehead of CoreResources (Cleveland, OH), Mr. Paul Purcell of Enertek Partners (Columbus, OH), and Ms. Dawn McGee of Global Partners LLP (Sebastopol, CA).

The Forum's organizer is the Environmental Capital Network (Ann Arbor, MI), an organization that also organizes environmental capital forums in New York City and San Francisco. Forum's sponsors and contributors include PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, the Office of Industrial Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Illinois Department of Commerce & Community Affairs.

Bio-Manufacturing Project Financing Opportunities
     --- Invitation only ---  Contact ECN for details.

October 21,  9:00 am to noon     same location as above

Four presenting companies are seeking project finance capital.  They have received earlier venture investment support from the AARC.

AARCC is the Alternative Agric. Research and Commcialization Corp., a venture investment subsidiary of the US Dept. of Agriculture that invests in startup companies that use agricultural waste materials in manufacturing.


UFTO Note - Ions Increase Fuel Effic.
Date: Thu, 17 Sep 1998


Ions Increase Fuel Efficiency

Ionic Fuel Technology is a small public U.S. company (NASDAQ-IFTI) with a device that substantially increases the efficiency of any hydrocarbon fueled burner.  This is proven, operational, commercial technology that can be used/retrofit with any boiler technology, regardless of/in addition to other (emissions control) equipment.  To date, operations and sales have been almost entirely in the UK and Europe.

Payback is invariably less than 24 months, and sometimes as little as 6 months.  In the case of rental, the customer sees a positive cash flow immediately.

They have not yet done a large utility boiler, although PowerGen is about to undertake a field test on a 250 tons (steam)/hr boiler.  The only activity in the U.S. was an experiment with AES on a fluid bed pulverized coal (PC) plant which was not successful.  In fact, PC remains a challenge for the company--they suspect the injected charge might be canceled by the intense electrostatic activity of the powdered coal.

The company originally applied the device on diesel engines, and was able to demonstrate 10% fuel savings. They weren't able, however, to interest the diesel engine makers.  The opportunity remains, and could be particularly useful for gen sets and locomotives.  The company has a small unit that would be directly applicable.

After seeing a Sept. 2 press release, UFTO contacted the company's chairman, Mr. Doug Johnston (New Canaan CT, 203-966-6004), and learned that IFT wants to identify a joint venture partner for the U.S.

The company does not have a website, but SEC filings are available on line, and the company can send an extensive information package.  Current market capitalization is just over $5 Million, with the stock price under $1 from a high last year over $5.


The company announced on September 1 that Texaco successfully completed a long-term (2 year) evaluation of the system.  The previously purchased unit was installed on one of seven boilers located at Texaco's 180,000 barrel per day Pembroke Refinery in South West Wales.  The Foster Wheeler boiler is rated at 175,000 pounds of steam per hour burning heavy fuel and refinery gas. The IFT system increased the boiler's thermal efficiency by 4.5 percent resulting in fuel savings of the same magnitude.  Additionally, annual emission of greenhouse gas (CO2) was reduced by 2,700 tons and nitrogen oxide (NOx) by over 6 tons.  The reduction in "greenhouse gas" and NOx emissions contributes toward Texaco's objective of progressively improving the refinery's environmental performance.

IFT and BP Energy have signed a Business Alliance after successful tests at a BP Chemicals 250 tons/hr boiler in the UK.  BP Energy has ordered a unit on behalf of a Scottish paper mill.  The company also has agreements with a service and marketing firm in Belgium, a long term rental agreement with a brewer in Germany, and has received orders from BMW and a UK brewer.  A large pharmaceutical company in the UK has been using an IFT system for more than a year.

The system does not involve water or steam injection, chemical injection or additive, or an electric or magnetic field.

---- (From the company's 10-K) ----

The IFT System, which is attached to a customer's heating or power generation equipment, produces negatively charged ions ("Ions") by passing an air flow over a body of vibrating liquid and into the combustion chamber or air intake of the customer's machinery. The ionized air supply accelerates the normal combustion process. As a result of the improved combustion, the amount of air and fuel supplied to the burner can be reduced while still maintaining a constant measure of power output. This reduction of air and fuel decreases fuel consumption as well as the production of NOX CO and CO2 and when burning fuel oil, fireside coking and particulate emissions are also reduced.

The IFT System is self contained in a cube-shaped metal cabinet. The System's interior mechanism vibrates the surface of a liquid contained inside the cabinet. The vibrating liquid releases negatively charged Ions that are then delivered to the customer's equipment through a connection placed either adjacent to the boiler's combustion chamber or to the boiler's air intake mechanism.

The System is available in eight sizes ranging from 15" x 12" x 16" to 43" x 3 1-5" x 35". Such sizes are suitable for boilers generating from approximately 1,000 lbs. of steam per hour to approximately 96,000 lbs. of steam per hour. Multiple Systems are used when either the boiler has more than one burner or the boiler's power generating capacity exceeds the capacity of the largest IFT System. The System generally requires only a routine servicing every six months and may be leased or purchased.

Typical performance results of the System reveal a reduction in NOx. emissions [up to 6%], a reduction in CO emissions ranging from 6% to 80%, a reduction in CO2 emissions ranging from 2 1/2% to 7%, a reduction in particulate emissions ranging from 6% to 40% and a reduction in fuel consumption ranging from 2 1/2% to 7%. The exact performance of the System depends upon the customer's existing equipment and desired objectives; customers may achieve less favorable results or no improvement if their equipment requires repair or if fuel and air flows cannot be closely controlled. If NOx and CO emissions have been reduced by the use of other equipment, the System may be used to reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. CO2 emission reduction correlates directly with the fuel savings which the IFT System provides.

UFTO Note - Final Meeting SEAB Elec. Reliab TF
Date: Thu, 10 Sep 1998

>From Paul Carrier, Task Force Staff Director   ( paul.carrier@hq.doe.gov )

Here is the draft agenda for the September 29 meeting of the DOE Task Force on Electric System Reliability. It is anticipated that the Task Force will conclude its work at this meeting with the approval of a final report.

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Electric System Reliability Task Force
Tuesday, September 29, 1998,  8:30 AM - 4:00 PM.
Georgetown University Conference Center,
Salon H, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington DC 20057

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Richard C. Burrow, Secretary of Energy
Advisory Board (AB-1), U.S. DOE,  (202-586-1709

  The electric power industry is in the midst of a complex transition to competition, which will induce many far-reaching changes in the structure of the industry and the institutions which regulate it.  This transition raises many reliability issues, as new entities emerge in the power markets and as generation becomes less integrated with transmission.
  The purpose of the Electric System Reliability Task Force is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board regarding the critical institutional, technical, and policy issues that need to be addressed in order to maintain the reliability of the nation's bulk electric system in the context of a more competitive industry.

Tentative Agenda
Tuesday, September 29, 1998
  8:30   - 8:45 AM    Opening Remarks & Objectives -- Philip Sharp, Task Force Chairman
  8:45 - 10:15 AM    Working Session: Discussion of Draft Report --Facilitated by Philip Sharp
10:15 - 10:30 AM      Break
10:30 - 11:45 AM      Working Session: Discussion of Draft Report --Facilitated by Philip Sharp
11:45 - 12:00 PM     Public Comment Period
12:00 -  1:30 PM      Lunch
  1:30 -  2:30 PM      Working Session: Approval of Final Report --Facilitated by Philip Sharp
  2:30 -  3:30 PM     Closing Comments by Task Force Members
  3:30 -  3:45 PM     Closing Comments by DOE Representatives
  3:45 -  4:00 PM     Public Comment Period
  4:00 PM               Adjourn
 This tentative agenda is subject to change.   The final agenda will be available at the meeting.

Subject:   UFTO Note - Rel. TF Paper-Federalism in Transmission
    Date:   Fri, 04 Sep 1998

Another paper from the DOE Reliability Task Force just arrived.  I have the
pdf file if you want it -- should be posted shortly on the SEAB website.

     Issues of Federalism in Transmission System Reliability
               A Position paper of the
         Electric System Reliability Task Force
            Secretary of Energy Advisory Board
                     July 9, 1998

Our federal system shares institutional responsibility for ensuring North American grid reliability; this paper addresses the role of state and regional authorities. Our focus is issues of siting and non-federal price regulation that have significant reliability implications. We address both constraints and opportunities. We also acknowledge an important threshold issue: whether the grid itself retains natural monopoly features that justify a continuing government role in regulating the prices of grid services.

If, as some believe, grid construction and maintenance lack compelling natural monopoly characteristics, regulated systems of cost recovery may not long endure at state or other levels. Acknowledging this viewpoint, the Task Force nonetheless believes that this sector's monopoly aspects remain robust enough to justify improving rather than dismantling price regulation. And we are concerned that state and federal regulation is not doing enough to promote and shape sound investments in grid reliability.1 We also support an increased role for regional institutions that can help states resolve issues that transcend their individual boundaries.

Our paper is organized in four sections below. In section I, we begin with a critical review of state and local responsibility for transmission siting and evaluation of transmission alternatives. In section II, we then explore state roles in cost recovery and incentives for transmission enhancements, including but not limited to new transmission. The third section addresses states' participation in existing regional reliability organizations. The final section is a summary of the papers recommendations.


UFTO Note - DOE Reliability TF paper on T&D
Date: Fri, 04 Sep 1998

The Department of Energy's Electric System Reliability Task Force has written a position paper, "Incentives for Transmission Enhancement". The report indicates that a need exists for the construction of more power lines to relieve congestion, and that regulators should provide incentives for their construction. In the report, the Task Force reviews the nature of transmission and the challenges facing transmission companies in a deregulated electric industry. The report concludes that the main concern facing grid reliability is the need for stronger state and federal-level regulation to promote sound investments.

The report and earlier materials are available on line:


Electric System Reliability Task Force - Minutes and Reports

       Ninth Meeting - Minutes from the ninth meeting (May 12, 1998).
       Eighth Meeting - Minutes from the eighth meeting (March 10, 1998).
       Seventh Meeting - Minutes from the seventh meeting (January 1998).
       Sixth Meeting - Minutes from the sixth meeting (November 1997).
       Fifth Meeting - Minutes from the fifth meeting (September 1997).
       Fourth Meeting - Minutes from the fourth meeting (July 1997).
       Third meeting - Minutes from the third meeting (June 1997).
       Second meeting - Minutes from the second meeting (March 1997).
       First meeting - Minutes from the first meeting (January 1997).

       Incentives for Transmission Enhancement (in PDF) (August 1998)
              Transmittal Letter to Walter Massey, Chairman of SEAB (in PDF)
       Technical Issues in Transmission System Reliability (in PDF) (May
              Transmittal Letter to Walter Massey, Chairman of SEAB (in PDF)
       Ancillary Services and Bulk-Power Reliability (in PDF) (May 1998)
              Transmittal Letter to Walter Massey, Chairman of SEAB (in PDF)
       The Characteristics of the Independent System Operator (March 1998)
              Transmittal Letter to Walter Massey, Chairman of SEAB
              Table: Roles, Functions and Relationships of Various
Institutions with ISOs
       Task Force SRRO Letter Report (November 1997)
       Task Force Interim Report (July 1997)
              Transmittal Letter to Walter Massey, Chairman of SEAB

For more information on the Electric System Reliability Task Force, please contact:

Richard Burrow
       DOE, Secretary of Energy Advisory Board       (202) 586-7092


UFTO Note - VSAT satellite datalink
Date: Tue, 01 Sep 1998
To: uftolist@ufto.com
CC: doug.j.graham@lmco.com

The following note is from an acquaintance of mine at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications, in Sunnyvale CA.  If you are interested in more information, or would be willing to be interviewed, please contact Doug Graham directly.

VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal, referring to 18 inch dish antennas.


VSAT Survey

Lockheed Martin is contemplating deployment of a geosynchronous (GEO) satellite network which will offer bandwidth-on-demand asymmetric services suited to high rate or bursty data traffic. We have retained the management consulting firm KPMG to assist with a market survey of potential users.

The satellite network will be interoperable with terrestrial wireline and wireless networks and offer service at datarates of 27 Mb/s (Mega bits per sec) outbound to selected user terminals (i.e. multicast) and 2 Mb/s return (i.e. backhaul) from each user terminal to a central ground station hub. Hubs can be either dedicated to a single user or shared with multiple users. User terminals will have antenna diameters of about one meter. The system will provide user-selectable security and Quality of Service attributes for both data and video services.

One of our hypotheses is that there are niche markets in a number of industries where a 2 Mb/s backhaul channel has value. Applications could include: central monitoring of multiple remote (moveable) video surveillance units, SCADA data (or data-time histories) aggregated from multiple sources, alternate trusted path for backup control or disaster recovery and collaborative work involving constant transfer of large data files between colleagues at dispersed locations.

Would you be available for a brief 45 min interview by KPMG and Lockheed-Martin business development staff? Time and location at your convenience. In return, we would be willing to share the results of our primary research study.

Sincerely, Doug Graham, Partner Development Manager,
     408-543-3326,     pgr 800-725-5079,    doug.j.graham@lmco.com


Date: Wed, 29 Jul 1998

GASMAP -- Analysis and Tracking Tool for the Natural Gas Industry
**User Access is available on request, on a collegial basis.**  The limitation is server capacity, so ANL is not in a position to throw it wide open.  They are also very open to any companies that want to provide better data on their own gas T&D systems--which can be kept confidential.

(lifted directly from ANL webpage:   http://www.dis.anl.gov/disweb/gasmaptt)

GASMAP, a comprehensive geographic information system (GIS), contains information never before gathered in one place and organizes it for use by professionals in the industry. Data include:

--All the government data forms collected by DOE including FERC and EIA, integrated in a common format and linked together
--Spatial data on natural gas pipelines and their respective points
--Energy-related data about cogeneration units, electric utility plants, service territories of local distribution companies (LDCs), and natural gas storage fields

Users can locate map data on more than 100 interstate pipelines, information on more than 2,000 companies and more than 1,000 variables.

GASMAP contains many layers of graphic data. This map identifies and locates 100 interstate pipelines. GASMAP integrates three commercial applications and links them through a custom graphical interface. MapInfo serves as the GIS component, Microsoft FoxPro is the relational database engine, and Microsoft Visual Basic supplies the menu system and interface. The system is PC-based and uses Windows.

Professionals use GASMAP's analytical and tracking capability to assess pipeline capacity and deal with routing and location issues. They can also extract sales, customer, system flow, and storage data on utility companies. With simple menu selections, users can:
--Produce maps displaying specific pipelines or pipelines layered with other energy data and supporting background information (e.g., roads, streams, railroads)
--Produce tables and graphs
--Review data by company, state, or topic and compare them with related data

A data dictionary links all the forms and information into index files. The user can view all data for a specific state or company without knowing the files or variables being used. The menus guide the user through the query, address it, and provide results in either tabular or graphical form.

Contact  Ron Fisher,  630-252-3508, refisher@anl.gov

You can email him directly to set up an account.  Indicate which version of Windows you are running (i.e., 3.1, 95, or NT).


UFTO Note - Argonne Visit notes
Date: Wed, 29 Jul 1998 08:42:15 -0700
To: uftolist@ufto.com
CC: "Wolsko, Tom - ANL" <tdwolsko@anl.gov>,  "Weeks, Dick - ANL" <rww@anl.gov>
|   **  UFTO  **     Edward Beardsworth    **    Consultant
|   951 Lincoln Ave.                       tel 650-328-5670
|   Palo Alto CA 94301-3041                fax 650-328-5675
|          http://www.ufto.com            edbeards@ufto.com

This is a quick highlights memo about the UFTO visit to Argonne, July 15, 16. A full report will be forthcoming early this Fall.

For the first time, a sizable contingent of UFTO member companies was present for the whole visit.  I hope this can become our standard practice, with even a bigger attendance. Argonne made excellent presentations for us.  We all agreed that it was a good *beginning* of what must become an ongoing dialogue.

If you want a headstart on some of Argonne's work, here are a few things we heard about that really piqued the group's interest:

Comprehensive GIS with massive data on gas system.  See separate NOTE, or go to this webpage:  http://www.dis.anl.gov/disweb/gasmaptt
**User Access is available on request, on a collegial basis.**  The limitation is server capacity, so ANL is not in a position to throw it wide open.  They are also very open to any companies that want to provide better data on their own gas T&D systems--which can be kept confidential.
Contact  Ron Fisher, 630-252-3508, refisher@anl.gov

-- Ice Slurry District Cooling
UFTO reported on this back in 93/94. It is now privately funded, and has advanced considerably.  Ice slush dramatically increases the capacity of new or retrofitted central cooling distribution systems.
Contact Ken Kasza,  630-252-5224,  ke_kasza@qmgate.anl.gov

-- On-Line Plant Transient Diagnostic
Uses thermal-hydraulic first principles, along with generic equipment data, in a two-level knowledge system.  Neural net models of the system can rapidly indicate what's causing a transient, e.g. water loss, heat added, etc., and identify where in the system the problem lies.  The system wouldn't need to be custom built for each plant, except to incorporate the plant's schematics. It's been run in blind tests at a nuclear plant. Next step is to hook it up to a full scale simulator, and then go for NRC approval.  A fossil application would be much easier.
Contact Tom Wei, 630-252-4688,  tcywei@anl.gov
     or   Jaques Reifman 630-252-4685, jreifman@anl.gov

-- Advanced NOx Control with Gas Co-firing
Closed-loop controller adjusts furnace control variables to get optimal distribution of gas injection to yield greatest NOx reduction.  Typical systems use gas at 20% of heat input, but this system gets same or better NOx levels with only 7%.  Joint effort with ComEd, GRI, and Energy Systems Assoc.
Contact Jaques Reifman 630-252-4685, jreifman@anl.gov
   or Tom Wei, 630-252-4688,  tcywei@anl.gov

Sensor monitor and fault detection system knows if the system is misbehaving or the sensor is wrong.  Can see slow drift, signal dropout, and noise, giving early indicators of sensor failure, and providing assurance that the process itself is operating normally, thus reducing unneeded shutdowns. It also can monitor the process itself, for wide ranging quality control applications. MSET stands for Multivariate State Estimation Technique.  A model learns expected relationships among dozens or hundreds of sensor inputs, and makes predictions for what each sensor should say, and this is compared with the actual sensor signal.  Argonne has patented a unique statistical test for residual error (the difference) which replaces the usual setting of fixed limit levels.  There are also important innovations in the neural net modeling, which is completely non-parametric.

Applications range from the NASA shuttle engine, to several power plants, to the stock market.
ANL contacts are Ralph Singer, 630-252-4500, singer@ra.anl.gov
                 Kenny Gross 630-252-6689, gross@ra.anl.gov

  A spin off company is doing applications in everything else but electric generation. (Think of the possibilities in T&D!!) They call the product ProSSense. Website is at http//:www.smartsignal.com.
Contact Alan Wilks, Smart Signal Corp, Mt. Prospect IL  847-758-8418, adwilks@smartsignal.com).


Here is the text of ANL's overview "Topic Capability Sheet".  Many of you got hardcopies of the complete set in the mail. They're still available from Tom Wolsko  (tdwolsko@anl.gov).  I've also posted them on the UFTO website, until Argonne puts a final verion up on their own website.

Argonne National Laboratory:
A Science and Technology Partner for the Energy Industry

Argonne is a multidisciplinary science and technology organization that
offers innovative and cost-effective solutions to the energy industry.

-- Introduction
Argonne National Laboratory understands that energy companies must meet growing customer demand by creating, storing, and distributing energy and using the most efficient, cost-effective, environmentally benign technologies available to provide those services. We also understand that they must use increasingly more complex information for decision-making, comply with a multitude of environmental regulations, and adjust to a rapidly evolving marketplace.

Argonne has more than 50 years of experience in solving energy problems and addressing related issues, for both its customers and its own needs. Combining specialities such as materials science, advanced computing, power engineering, and environmental science, Argonne researchers apply cutting-edge science and advanced technologies to create innovative solutions to complex problems.

-- Argonne Solutions
Recent applications of that expertise include
 - A Spot Market Network model that simulates and evaluates short-term energy transactions.
 - A "fuel reformer" that allows fuel cells to use a wide variety of hydrocarbon fuels to make electricity.
 - Advisory systems for plant diagnostics and management based on sensors, neural networks, and expert systems.
 - MSET, a real-time sensor validation system that provides early warning of sensor malfunction.
 - Decontamination and decommissioning techniques developed for Argonne's own facilities.
 - Advanced materials for system components, batteries, ultracapacitors, flywheels, and hazardous waste encapsulation.

-- Contacts
Argonne's Working Group on Utilities:
  - Dick Weeks, 630-252-9710, rww@anl.gov
  - Tom Wolsko, 630-252-3733, tdwolsko@anl.gov

For technical information, contact the person listed under the category of interest.

Nuclear Technology
  David Weber, 630/252-8175, dpweber@anl.gov
 - Operations and Maintenance
 - Materials
 - Reactor Analysis
 - Safety
 - Spent-Fuel Disposition

Fossil Technology
  David Schmalzer, 630/252-7723, schmalzer@anl.gov
 - Basic and Applied Research
 - Technology Research and Development
 - Market, Resource, and Policy Assessments

Transmission and Distribution
  John Hull, 630/252-8580, john_hull@qmgate.anl.gov
 - System Components
 - Energy Storage
 - Distributed Generation
 - Data Gathering and Analysis
 - Biological Effects

Energy Systems and Components Research
 Richard Valentin, 630/252-4483, richv@anl.gov
 - Component Reliability
 - Sensors
 - Systems Analysis

Materials Science and Technology
  Roger Poeppel, 630/252-5118, rb_poeppel@qmgate.anl.gov
 - Materials Characterization
 - Modeling and Performance
 - Advanced and Environmental Materials
 - Materials Properties
 - Superconductivity

Fuel Cell Research and Development
  Walter Podolski, 630/252-7558, podolski@cmt.anl.gov
 - Fuel Processing
 - System Design, Modeling, and Analysis
 - Testing
 - Energy-Use Pattern Analysis

Advanced Concepts in Energy Storage
  K. Michael Myles, 630/252-4329, myles@cmt.anl.gov
 - Secondary Batteries
 - Ultracapacitors and High-Power Energy Storage
 - Flywheels
 - Superconducting Magnets

Information Technology
  Craig Swietlik, 630/252-8912, swietlik@dis.anl.gov
 - Computer Security and Protection
 - Independent Verification and Validation
 - Information Management
 - Advanced Computing Technologies

Environmental Science and Technology
  Don Johnson, 630/252-3392, don_johnson@qmgate.anl.gov
 - Environmental Characterization
 - Process Modifications
 - Emissions Controls
 - Waste Management
 - Site Management

Environmental and Economic Analysis
  Jerry Gillette, 630/252-7475,  jgillette@anl.gov
 - Electric System Modeling and Analysis
 - Risk Assessment and Management
 - Environmental Assessment
 - Cost and Economic Analysis
 - Legal and Regulatory Analysis

Decontamination and Decommissioning
  Tom Yule, 630/252-6740, tjyule@anl.gov
 - Operations
 - Technology
 - Technical Analysis

End-Use Technologies
 William Schertz, 630/252-6230, schertzw@anl.gov
 - Plasma Processes
 - Ultrasonic Processing
 - Electrodialysis Separation Processes
 - Recycling Technologies
 - Aluminum and Magnesium Production

Thermal Energy Utilization Technologies
  Kenneth Kasza, 630/252-5224, ke_kasza@anl.gov
 - Compact Heat Exchangers
 - Ice Slurry District Cooling
 - Advanced Thermal Fluids

For information on working with Argonne, contact Paul Eichamer, Industrial Technology Development Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 201, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439; phone: 800/627-2596; fax: 630/252-5230, pdeichamer@anl.gov


UFTO Note - CURC Annual Technology Conf.
Date: Mon, 27 Jul 1998

Here's an advance notice just received about this years (2nd) annual CURC conference.  I plan to attend on behalf of UFTO.

If you're interested in receiving later announcements and information, I suggest you send an email to Mary Beth Salter at SCE  salterme@sce.com  (tel 626-815-7217) and ask her to add you to the email distribution list.

California Electric and Natural Gas Research
Annual Technology Exchange Conference

November 2-4, 1998

Doubletree Hotel near Orange County Airport   (714-540-7000)

1. Exchange information on RD&D Projects
2. Identify opportunities for joint funding of RD&D Projects
3. Prevent duplicative RD&D
4. Promote consistency between RD&D programs and State energy policy

a. Identifying RD&D needs and current programs from Local, State, and National perspectives
b. Improving the RD&D Process and Achievement of Benefits
c. Special Keynote Address, Visit to National Fuel Cell Center, and Social at
         Edison Field of Anaheim

Sponsor: California Utility Research Council (CURC)
- Members are CPUC, CEC, PG&E, SCE, SDG&E, SoCalGas
- In association with CIEE, CMUA, EPRI,GRI, LADWP, SMUD

- Early hotel registration available directly with Doubletree at $99/day.
  Conference starts at 10:00 AM on 11/2/98.
- Conference registration details and forms are in-process
- Contact Mary Beth Salter at SCE  626- 815-7217,
    or email salterme@sce.com for further details

For some fun scary summer reading:
Have a look at the current (August) issue of WIRED Magazine.  In a big story on Y2K (page 122), it tells about computer experts who are convinced that civilization as we know it will stop, mostly due to the complete failure of the power grid, for many months or even longer.  Some of them have turned into fullfledged survivalists, setting up compounds in remote locations.

How serious do you think the threat is?


Subject: UFTO Note- New Approach to Data Mining
Date: Thu, 09 Jul 1998 19:53:50 -0700

 New Approach to Data Mining

Triada, a small company in Ann Arbor MI and Foster City CA, has developed a remarkable and entirely different approach to analyzing large amounts of data, producing knowledge and insights that can be acted on.

The company has already attracted interest of some huge manufacturing companies, and appears poised for a dramatic lift-off.  They're seeking demonstration opportunities with individual companies, and with partner/vendors who can take the product into various markets.

During a recent visit to their facility, I had the system explained and demonstrated.  The implications truly do appear staggering, as you see how simple it is on one level, and how powerful on another.

The key is a unique "transform" process that looks at the data in an entirely different way.  Engineers will appreciate an analogy with the Fourier Transform, used for more than a century to analyse continuous waveform data. Transforms can dramatically reduce the amount of data, and/or provide a different way of "seeing" it, e.g., making it possible to understand in ways that never would have been possible with the orginal data.  (Imagine trying to make sense of frequency spectra without FT.)

The following material is taken directly from Triada's company literature and website, at   http://www.triada.com   Note the white paper especially, under "Technology" for the complete rendition of this concept, along with graphics.

Contact:  Bruce Borden,  650-378-7506,  bborden@triada.com

-- Triada's NGram Transform.

The software uses a unique and patented method for identifying relationships between disparate data items and presenting those relationships in an extraordinarily compact and useful manner.

Triada's revolutionary technology transforms information into associations. Modeled on human memory, the NGram Transform, learns raw data, remembering it in Associative Memory Structures (AMSs). These structures contain all associations that exist in the original data, presenting them in an interactive and intuitive form. Unlike data mining, which relies primarily on guesswork and brute force querying, the AMS reveals data knowledge quickly and visually.

Today's enterprises are overwhelmed by a glut of data. The challenge is no longer how to gather and store information. Instead, it is how to turn very large amounts of data into useful knowledge.

The NGram Transform, mathematically transforms raw data from the data domain into powerful knowledge in the association domain. In the data domain, knowledge is difficult to identify. It is lost in the myriad of details collected in the database. By seeing all associations within data, NGramTM transforms data into the association domain, revealing knowledge and making it readily accessible to the analyst.

-- Associative Memory Structures-the Power of NGram Transform

 Because an AMS stores information as associations, redundant information shrinks as it is transformed. AMSs are typically much smaller than the size of the original data. And, as more information is tranformed into an AMS, its growth rate slows. This is because the AMS has already learned much of the information it is encountering.

In a corporate database, information is highly redundant. Think of the sales records for an automotive company. Each record contains fields such as date, model, options, color, price, warranty, dealership, and salesperson. A given model is sold thousands of times, with a few hundred combinations of options, color, and warranty. Prices vary from sale to sale, but, for one model, they will all fall within a rather narrow band, such as from the list price of $14,995 down to $11,999.

NGram Transform can associate all prices with all sales by all salespeople, etc. This transformation by association is knowledge. By simply looking at the AMSs, you can see many useful facts, such as how many trucks a particular dealership sold, how many red Fords were sold on a particular date, and which dealerships discounted more heavily than others. This means that you do not need to write and solve complex database queries to obtain the equivalent information.

Statistically Unusual Events Can be Significant

Things that happen infrequently can be just as interesting and potentially important as those that occur often. While low-association frequency events are often merely data entry errors, they can also be important events that data scrubbing applications almost always miss.

Some failures may occur very infrequently, but always happen in some combination of events: whenever a certain make of car is nine-months-old, the extra undercoat option was not applied, and if the car was purchased in northern cities, then the radiator always springs a leak. This association perhaps implies that the radiator is rusting from salt corrosion. NGram Transform captures the relationship as soon as it occurs. Summary or statistical analysis would most likely miss this association. Then, months later when it has become a sizable problem, the manufacturer's engineers would begin searching for an explanation of why the defect occurs. Quite often, due to the enormous volume of data involved, the association that would be immediately evident with NGram Transform is never spotted by traditional methods, and the true root cause of a problem remains a mystery.

The Power of Association

Associations have many other powerful characteristics that simplify knowledge discovery:

• Associations act like memories of events. The human brain processes information in a non-linear way. NGram Transform makes similar associations, finding patterns in seemingly random fact sets. For example, NGram Transform can associate the number of warranty claims brought into a particular dealership, revealing that the most claims occur during January.

• Associations are facts. If a dealership sells 25 red pickups, NGram Transform can make that association.

• Associations act like intersections of events. If Sales Rep Jane sells 12 red Ford pickups on the same day Sales Rep Joe sells five minivans, those two events will be associated by NGram Transform.

• Associations act like Boolean operations. When we build up associations, we are doing Boolean operations (mostly ands) of multiple records. With NGram Transform the "and" of all of the pick-up sales records will be available in a node that combines color and make. The node counting pick-ups will be the "or" of all of the colors, models, sales reps, and so forth.

Associations are answers to questions yet to be asked. Because queries of a large database often require significant processor time and disk space, the user usually restricts the query so that it produces only a fraction of the information the user knows is available in the database. Using NGram Transform, the answer to the same query appears as an association in an AMS node. In fact, all the related associations are also revealed in the same node.

 Vital Statistics

NGram Transform and Athena run under Windows NT on an Intel compatible PC. Depending on the amount of original data and its redundancy, the transformed AMS will be smaller than the original data by a sizable factor. In several recent cases, 50 GBytes of original data required only five GBytes of storage as an AMS. This is just the opposite of storage in an RDBMS, which typically adds 200% overhead, requiring roughly three times the original data size for storage. This compression allows AMSs to be backed up efficiently, transmitted, or replicated.

NGram Transform is very fast. It learns information at around 5 GBytes per hour per processor. Once built, you can copy an AMS from the system where it was built to each user's system, or the AMS can be accessed through NT's distributed file system. Multiple processors in one system can display the same AMS or independent AMSs. You can incrementally update an AMS. In general, an AMS never forgets, but you can remove records from it.


You will gain new business insights whenever you view an AMS transformation of your data. Every Triada customer is finding new and exciting ways to leverage the knowledge NGram Transform reveals. A financial credit company is using NGram Transform to find errors from their information sources. They plan to also use NGram Transform to identify target customers for mailing lists. An auto manufacturer is using Athena to pinpoint root causes of failures before they become bigger problems. They intend to also use Athena to identify option combination trends for target marketing.

** NGram Transform converts data from an information domain into an association domain. Once transformed, all associations in the data become directly viewable.

** NGram Transform is loss-less and reversible; the original records may be retrieved.

** NGram Transform converts raw data into Associative Memory Structures. AMSs typically require much smaller amounts of storage space then the original data size and they grow more slowly as more information is taught to them.

** The associative memory portions of an AMS are even smaller. These will fit in the main memory of most computer systems, requiring little or no I/O during the examination process.

Data mining applications require guesswork and extensive querying. Relying only on these tools is a risky proposition; you never know if you've discovered everything of interest. With NGram Transform, knowledge is instantly at your fingertips, revealed to you in an intuitive and visual form. Your analysts will save time and money.

Discover the power of NGram Transform and transform your data into valuable knowledge.


Subject: UFTO Note - Fed. Restructuring Proposal
Date: Wed, 01 Jul 1998 06:54:46 -0800
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>

Forwarding note received this morning from DOE coordinators for the SEAB
Task Force on Electrical System Reliability.

Subject: Administration's Electricity Legislation
Date: Wed, 1 Jul 1998 8:37:00 -0400
From: paul.carrier@hq.doe.gov

On June 26 the Administration forwarded its proposed electricity
restructuring legislation to the U.S. Congress. The proposed
Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act along with a
section-by-section analysis can be found on the Internet at:

The Act's provisions on reliability are based on the recommendations
of the Department of Energy Task Force on Electric System Reliability.


Subject: UFTO Note - Sm Commercial Energy Mgt
Date: Wed, 24 Jun 1998 14:22:02 -0800

(I've known Unity Systems for many years, on both personal and professional level.  They are my principal resource for insights into home automation and related topics.  The following summary was prepared with their help, to introduce you to them.  EB)

 ---------------- --------------------------------------------------------------

  Focus Shifts from Home Automation to Small Commercial Energy Management
   -- Unity Systems, Inc.

Home automation hasn't turned into the big market that many expected. Unity Systems is finding better applications with small commercial and industrial customers.

Unity made its start in home automation in 1986, controlling heating and cooling, security, lights and appliances in high-end homes. Unity was relatively successful. With systems in over 4,000 homes, its installed base exceeded all other players, including Honeywell. But the total market was limited to expensive new homes, less than 1% of the residential market.

Like many others (especially utility research groups), Unity was intrigued by the possiblity of using the powerline for communications to address one of the biggest obstacles to home automation: labor to install wiring, especially in existing homes. Unity joined the Home Automation Advisory Board of Echelon (Lonworks) and sent engineers through its training program.  They also started working closely with Intellon (developers of the EIA's CEBus standard). Based primarily on feedback from utility customers, Unity chose to develop several products incorporating the CEBus powerline carrier ("PLC") protocol. Introduced in 1995, the CEBus Controller Card won the Home Automation Association award for the best network product.  Over the next two years, Unity's CEBus Controller and a number of related products were used by over 20 utilities in residential trials throughout North America.

Then, one by one, a majority of utilties terminated their trials and plans for major residential roll-outs. Utilities started to get feedback on customer interest and willingness to pay.  They also started cranking in "real" costs, not optimistic estimates.  The conclusion: at one fifth the cost, this stuff would be fantastic.  It gives the customer automation and control, and gives the utility cheap AMR and a platform for additional services. But what to do for now?

Enter small commercial industrial customers, the "overlooked" part of the market.  Generally they are diverse and hard to reach, but as a group they represent a significant energy market. Plus, for the most part, they've been paying top dollar for their energy. These are the kind of customers ENRON will be going after, not Mr. and Mrs. Smith. Plus, their energy bills are higher, typically 5 times that of the residential customer (which takes care of the 1/5 cost goal mentioned earlier).

Fortunately, Unity had already been working with its dealers and Honeywell to come up with a low cost modular controller for both residential and commercial applications (dubbed the Universal Controller, or UC).  To communicate with devices on the premises, the UC can use low cost wiring when appropriate, and it can also use CEBus powerline.  Moreover, the UC can be used with any kind of user interface (touchpanel, PC, smart phone, etc.) and with virtually any wide area communication to and from the customer's premises -- they have experience with RF (CellNet and ITRON), cable, and standard telco networks.

A key strength that Unity brings is expertise in cost-effective "smart" energy management.  This includes the use of outside air, occupancy, carbon dioxide levels, utility time-of-use rates, and other key variables to minimize heating and cooling costs.  It's dubbed "smart" because it goes well beyond the limited logic of the typical thermostat.  An example is using a fan to bring in cool evening outside air in lieu of running the air conditioning equipment.  Another example is using a CO2 sensor to sense occupancy in a McDonald's playland area, setting back temperatures when it's unoccupied.  The UC can even take utility rates into account to decide when and how to meet heating and cooling demands.

Unity's easy-to-use Windows 95 setup software allows an authorized contractor to incorporate not only smart algorithms, but precise scheduling of temperature based on day of the week, time of day, holidays, and so on.  A Unity study published in the ASHRAE Journal (Oct. '89) documents the effectiveness of their zoning algorithms.  Safeguards in the logic prevent excessive cycling of equipment, pressure build-up, or other detrimental conditions, based on detailed equipment models that are built into the software.

Standard thermostats are eliminated by using UnityÕs own flush-mounted temperature sensors that can be painted or covered to "disappear" into the wall.  This is more pleasing aesthetically and does away one of the largest headaches especially for public facilities: fiddling by customers or well-meaning employees.  The on site control is a simple touchpad, typically located in the manager's office, passcode protected from unauthorized use. The system also offers extensive remote monitoring and control capabilities.

Unity's installations to date include schools, churches, fast food restaurants, light industrial manufacturing operations, car dealerships, retail stores and warehouses.  Hard data is starting to come in, and it's pretty impressive, including a 36 percent savings from a car dealership in California and a whopping 61 percent from an office in Arizona.

Unity is now focused on the small commercial market, offering utilities and other distributors smart energy management and a platform for additional services such as remote monitoring and control and extended maintenance. They are working with unregulated utility subsidiaries (ESCOs, ESPs, etc.) who bundle the Unity products with energy and related products and services.

Contact:  Tom Riley, President, Unity Systems, Inc.
          650-369-3233 x100,     riley@unitysys.com
     (Relocating from Redwood City to Sunnyvale, CA in July)
      (new number effective July 6 -- 408-530-0500)

Additional information is available on the company's website at
             http:// www.unitysys.com


Subject: UFTO Note - Building Products from Fly Ash and CO2
Date: Wed, 24 Jun 1998 14:06:24 -0800

Our friends at Materials Technology Ltd. have shared with me the following information about the significant progress they're making to turn ash into useful materials using Supercritical CO2.  Especially noteworthy is the fact that the CO2 is expected to come from the power plant flue gas, and thus represents significant sequestration of CO2 at the same time.  Note the information presented on CO2 separation methods.

The original UFTO note about this work appeared on January 1, 1997 - available in the UFTO website database.

Here is the abstract of a paper they will present at the Green Chemistry Conf, Jun 30 - July 2 in Washington (conference details are attached below).


Roger Jones, President and CEO,
  Materials Technology Ltd, 14525 Rim Rock Road, Reno, NV 89511;
Frank G. Baglin, Prof of Physical Chemistry, Univ of Nevada - Reno,
  Dept of Chemistry/216, Reno, NV 89557;
Bruce A. Salisbury, Plant Engineer,  Four Corners Power Plant,
  Arizona Public Service, P.O. Box 355, Fruitland, NM 87416.


Coal-fired electric power plant wastes, portland cement, calcium oxide and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) are feedstocks to make low-cost, superior roofing shingles, wallboard and other fiber-reinforced products. Flue-gas CO2, recovered using thermally-driven, gas-stripping techniques(1), is permanently bound into the products as carbonates, reducing atmospheric pollution and its contribution to global warming.


The purpose of this patented technology is to produce profitable building products and many other useful things using cemented "dusty" wastes treated with supercritical CO2 (2,3). Products are shaped from a paste made of quick lime, a small amount of portland cement, foamed fly ash and fiberglass reinforcement. Once hydrated, they are treated with supercritical CO2 (preferably recovered from flue gas) to react the hydroxide components, forming carbonates and water and reducing alkalinity to about neutral.

The process has four important advantages:

- It is conventional (relies upon proven technology).
- Capital required is low (three-year plant and equipment payback).
- Parasitic energy loss to the power plant is low or non-existent.
- There is a sufficiently high value-added component in final products to offset the logistics costs of raw materials and finished goods.

Production of cementitious goods and gas separation technologies are well-settled. Practical gas-separation technologies can be subdivided into four broad categories (4):

Membrane separation followed by distillation
Membrane absorption
Pressure-swing adsorption (PSA)

The appropriate technology depends upon feed stream composition and thermodynamics and upon required quantities of carbon dioxide. In our planned implementation, we will  use propylene carbonate absorption. CO2 stripping will occur after sulfur and nitrogen scrubbing.

Forming fiber-reinforced cementitious products like wallboard and roof shingles is also settled technology. Presently, fiberglass reinforced cementitious products demand  costly alkali-resistant or plastic-coated glass to prevent alkali-silica reaction. Supercritical carbonation technology allows use of low-cost e-glass instead.

With the exception of foaming agents, fiber reinforcement and portland cement, all raw materials are available on site. The lightweight building products (in this case, fiberglass reinforced roofing shingles and fiberglass reinforced wallboard) are made by cementing foamed fly ash (about 53,000 tons annually for this plant) with calcium oxide (quick lime) and a small amount of portland cement. Both products will be made on continuous lines. After cementing, the products are subjected to treatment with supercritical CO2, again, in a continuous process. The CO2 forms carbonates and carbonated zeolites and reduces the alkalinity of the product to about neutral (pH 7). This permits incorporation of low-cost e-glass fibers without fear of subsequent, harmful alkali-silica reaction. The reinforcement is in the form of both continuous and chopped fiber.

Samples of the prototype products and those with which they compete will be displayed  during the oral presentation.

An analysis of the relative inputs to the prototype shingle compared with competing roofing products was made and the results appear in the chart at left (5).

Based on costs of raw materials and energy, our studies indicate that we will be able to sell these waste-based products at pricing points below those of the lowest-priced competing products.

A plant to produce both products is expected to cost approximately $11 million. Based on expected volumes and margins it will be fully amortizable in three years.

These products are examples of practical, solid-waste-feedstock, chemically bonded ceramics. Many other products can be produced in a similar manner, sequestering large quantities of solid waste and CO2 while offsetting manufacture of products using more energy-intensive systems that increase atmospheric CO2. Examples of such systems include thermoplastics, metals, composites, ceramics and forest products.

As industrial infrastructure in the developed countries ages and requires replacement or renovation, it will be wise to consider supercritical CO2 treated chemically bonded ceramics to reduce energy, raw materials and atmospheric pollution. For developing countries, the benefits are even greater.

In a developing economy, the creation of new industrial infrastructure requires huge investments in transportation systems for feedstocks, raw materials and components. Investment is also required to develop primary, secondary and tertiary manufacturing capacity as well as power plants and facilities to dispose of all types of plant wastes at all levels. Supercritical CO2 chemically bonded ceramic technology reduces much of this investment. Wastes and CO2 simply replace most feedstocks. Ancillary benefits arise from  reduction of capital and energy needed to harvest, mine, or otherwise produce raw materials and transport them and intermediate raw materials for secondary or tertiary manufacturing.


Supercritical CO2-treated chemically bonded ceramics rely upon proven, practical technology to produce valuable products from solid waste feedstocks. Capital requirements are lower than conventional production systems, particularly when considering cradle-to-grave economics. Parasitic energy loss to producers is essentially none. Profit margins are high, because most products can be produced with low-cost or no-cost feedstocks.


1 United States Patent 3,242,642 issued March 29, 1966, Process for Removing Acid Constituents from Gaseous Mixtures

2 United States Patent 5,518,540 issued May 21, 1996, Cement Treated with High-pressure CO2

3 United States Patent 5,690,729 issued November 27, 1997, Cement Mixtures with Alkali-Intolerant Matter and Method for Making Same

4 21 unpublished papers on methodology for practical recovery of food-grade CO2 from power plant flue gases, Carnegie Mellon University, Professor W.T. Berg, Senior Design Project, March 6, 1996

5 Darnay, Arsen J., ed., Manufacturing USA: Industry analyses, Statistics and Leading Companies, Gale Research, Inc., 1996, ISBN 0-8103-6453-0 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-8103-6454-9 (vol. 2)


The 2nd Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference: Global Perspectives
June 30 -  July 2, 1998
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

 The Conference is cosponsored by the American Chemical Society, Committee on Environmental  Improvement, Division of Environmental Chemistry, Division of Industrial & Chemical Engineering,  American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Chemical Manufacturers Association, Council for Chemical  Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Research Council, National Science  Foundation, Engineering Directorat, the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention & Toxics and Office of Research and Development.

 Papers are solicited for both oral and poster presentations in the following areas: Biocatalysis,  Biosynthesis/Bioprocessing, Environmentally Benign Chemical Synthesis, Heterogeneous Catalysis,  Environmentally Benign Solvents including Supercritical Fluids, Aqueous Systems, Solventless Systems, Design of Materials, Design of Safer Chemicals, Reactor Design, Separations and Process Analytical  Chemistry.

Details, registration form and complete program available at:

Contact Dianne Ruddy at the ACS for further information at
        (202) 872-4402, or e-mail d_ruddy@acs.org.


Subject: UFTO Note - Next Meeting SEAB Elec Reliability TF
Date: Thu, 18 Jun 1998 13:11:59 -0800

NOTE: For the first time, this meeting is in CHICAGO, not Washington DC...

Information on the Electric System Reliability Task Force, minutes of previous meetings, and the Task Force's interim report may be found at the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board's web site,

 Draft papers were forwarded in an UFTO Note on March 4.  DOE has not posted them to the website--only the approved papers appear there.

Secretary of Energy Advisory Board - Electric System Reliability Task Force
Thursday, July 9, 1998,  8:30 AM - 3:00 PM.
The Rosemont Convention Center, Conference Rooms 12 & 13,
5555 North River Road, Rosemont, Illinois.   (near the O'Hare International Airport)

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Richard C. Burrow, Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (AB-1), U.S. Department of Energy, (202) 586-1709 or (202) 586-6279 (fax).

   The electric power industry is in the midst of a complex transition to competition, which will induce many far-reaching changes in the structure of the industry and the institutions which regulate it.  This transition raises many reliability issues, as new entities emerge in the power markets and as generation becomes less integrated with transmission.

Purpose of the Task Force
   The purpose of the Electric System Reliability Task Force is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board regarding the critical institutional, technical, and policy issues that need to be addressed in order to maintain the reliability of the nation's bulk electric system in the context of a more competitive industry.
Tentative Agenda
Thursday, July 9, 1998
8:30 AM    Opening Remarks & Objectives
                   -- Philip Sharp, ESR Task Force Chairman
8:45 AM   Working Session: Discussion of Draft Position Paper
                  on State/Regional Issues in Transmission System
                   Reliability -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
10:15 AM   Break
10:30 PM   Working Session: Discussion of Draft Position Paper
                   on Incentives for Transmission Enhancement
                     -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
12:00   Lunch
1:00 PM    Working Session: Planning for the Final Report
                   -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
2:45 PM    Public Comment Period
3:00 PM          Adjourn


Subject: UFTO Note - Resonant Shock -- Ash to Block
Date: Sun, 07 Jun 1998 23:11:00 -0800

See UFTO Note Jan 15, 1998 for background on this remarkable development--turns ash of any kind, tailings, and dirt, into excellent building materials--cheaply and easily--using shock compaction.

The company, Resonant Shock Compaction, is making excellent progress.  Here are two items they've just sent me (I've made no changes):

1.  Large Block Testing Program -- invitation to participate.
2.  Abstract of their paper at recent DOE FETC 3rd annual Conference on
Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash.

Proposed Large Block Testing
RSC Compaction Technology
University of Denver


Public Service Company of Colorado and others are interested in testing the RSC technology beyond tests conducted in 1997 using coal combustion by- product (CCB) mixes to make parts for potential construction applications. This testing will test the RSC technology and its ability to fabricate large block parts.

Test Program Participants:

The following are defined as "test program participants," Boral Material Technologies, Cat Construction Inc., McDonald Farms Enterprises, Public Service Company of Colorado, RSC LLC, Tri-State Generation & Transmission, UtiliCorp United, University of Denver, VFL Technologies, Wallace Industries; and Nuclear Fuel Industries/Stoller Corp. These parties are willing to fund this test program in which large parts will be fabricated for  laboratory and field testing. All program participants will share equally in test data without regard to their monetary contribution toward the test program.

Test Objective:

The test objective is to measure strength and durability of large blocks fabricated from CCB mixes compacted by the RSC technology. These large blocks will be approximately 36" by 48" by up to 10" thick. The test program will compare properties of the large blocks with smaller test blocks fabricated and tested in 1997 and 1998.

It is proposed that the following number of quality blocks be fabricated from the following mixes:

(4 Blocks) Cherokee bottom ash and Cherokee No. 4 silo ash
(1 Block)  Cameo combination silo/bottom ash
(1 Block ) FGD material from Craig  and bottom ash from Hayden
(1 Block) Bottom ash from Nucla and other materials
(1 Block) Bottom ash from Clark Station and Class C ash from Comanche
(1 Block) Mojave bottom ash and fly ash
(1 Block) Japanese bottom ash and fly ash (NFI/Stoller)


The existing RSC machine at the University of Denver will be used. Four more air cushions and associated pneumatics will be installed to fabricate large blocks. A vacuum lifting device will be installed to safely move the large blocks. The vacuum lifting device will enable the same mold to be used repeatedly with minimum cycle time. A low cost curing chamber will be constructed to accelerate block curing to approximately 24 hours. Cement mixers and batch scales will be rented to prepare mixes and core drilling services will be hired to produce cores for laboratory testing.

 A single mold that can fabricate the blocks will be provided and upon completion of the program, the mold will become property of RSC LLC.

Mold Design:

A single mold, designed to produce parts approximately 36" by 48" by up to 10" thick will be designed by RSC LLC. Cost of the mold will be paid by test program participants. The mold will be designed for manual disassembly or ejection removal of parts. Testing will also address handling techniques (pins, bolts, lifting holes, etc.) for these test parts.  The use of a vacuum lifting device will enable parts to be removed from the mold upon ejection for separate movement to the curing chamber.

Mix Design:

Each test participant will provide sufficient quantities of CCBs at no cost to the program. All costs of raw materials provided to RSC LLC will be borne by test program participants.  Disposal of excess material will be arranged by PSCo.  Each participant will work with RSC LLC to determine the appropriate mix design. New materials and/or mix designs will first be tested in the small mold to develop mix design for the large blocks.

Machine Operations:

Machine power settings, vibration, shock, acceleration, and period will be set to achieve large block strength and durability characteristics similar to previously fabricated small test blocks.


Block strength and durability will be determined by measurement of compressive strength, porosity, freeze-thaw cycling, and resonant frequency. These tests will be performed on core samples cut from the blocks. Test criteria are based upon the 1997 and 1998 testing of small test block fabricated from similar mixes. Machine parameters and mix composition  will be optimized to achieve strong and durable blocks.

Upon completion of curing the blocks will be transported to the PSCo Arapahoe Plant where the test cores will be cut from the blocks for testing at the University of Denver and at Commercial Testing Laboratories (CTL). Participants will determine block performance by placing the blocks in field test conditions at their respective locations. Upon completion of the test program, sample cores or whole parts may be retained by RSC LLC, the University of Denver and/or program participants.

Additional  test capabilities available through the University of Denver Environmental Materials Laboratory  include acoustic pulse velocity and absorption, acoustic emission, surface porosity, SEM analysis, thermal properties, and TCLP.

Test Results:

Test data obtained from this program will be available to program participants. It is anticipated that test data will be used by program participants and others to identify potential market applications of the RSC technology for large blocks.  If a participant requires test data for a specific mix to be treated with confidentiality, that data will be provided only to that participant.  However, it is anticipated that the physical characteristics of the large blocks will be reported generically without regard to specific mix designs.

Material Handling Issues:

Material handling techniques used at the University of Denver will not represent anticipated production techniques. Raw materials will be delivered in drums and mixing performed by manually placing mix components into a cement mixer and manually placing the mix into the mold. Equipment for weighing, measuring and blending raw materials may be rented. A forklift and vacuum hoist will be used to move the block.  Because of space limitations at the University, different mix designs will be scheduled to reduce on property storage of raw materials and facilitate movement of completed blocks.


The test program schedule will be mutually determined by test program participants. A draft schedule is attached.

Test Program Costs:

The test program participants have agreed to fund this test program for an amount not to exceed $50,000. A test agreement will be prepared in which each participant will indicate their participation and/or level of funding. Participants will additionally bear all costs associated with providing their mix materials to the program, and transportation of mix material and test blocks.  PSCo will assist in the coordination of transportation of finished blocks to Arapahoe Station and in the disposal of excess materials.

Other Parties and Potential Recovering of Test Program Costs:

To reduce the test program costs for all participants and to encourage development of the RSC technology with other entities, if test data from this program attract other partners, then the test program participants will be reimbursed a prorated portion of their costs from future agreements in which the large block testing served as the catalyst. For example, each participant's share will be calculated as a percent of the total program. If a future agreement is signed between RSC LLC and other entities in which the large block test program results enable the agreement to be executed, then each test program participant will receive a fractional share of the agreement value to reimburse them for their participation, up to the full value only of their actual costs. This repayment will be made within three years of the completion of the test program. If no large block agreement with an entity is executed by that time, the test program costs will be forgiven.

Proposed Estimated Budget $45,000 - $50,000.


Presentation at the DOE FETC 3rd Annual Conference
on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly ASh.


Robert C. Amme, Ph.D., Manager, Environmental Materials Laboratory,
University of Denver

Robert E. Pressey, Keith Wier, and David Frey, RSC LLC.


At the University of Denver Environmental Materials Laboratory, Resonant Shock Compaction (RSC) has been employed in numerous laboratory tests to compact  high-carbon Class F fly ash,  bottom ash, and binders into solid dense specimens.  Laboratory specimens containing up to 100% ash have passed several ASTM concrete and masonry standard tests for compressive strength, water absorption, freeze-thaw durability, and aggregate durability (Table 1). RSC holds considerable promise as a means of successfully converting large volumes of high-carbon ash into construction materials.

The RSC technology is a high-g particle packing and forming process that has been licensed for ten years to commercially manufacture refractories weighing up to 5000 pounds. The Public Service Company of Colorado has funded a program at the University of Denver to develop applications of RSC to forming high-carbon Class F fly ash and bottom ash into value-added blocks and panels to construct sound barriers, retaining walls,  pond liners, and tilt-up building panels.  The Environmental Materials Laboratory is providing test facilities to study RSC process dynamics and product characteristics.

Typically, high-carbon test specimens formed by the RSC process have a compressive strength of 2000 to 5000 psi. Even specimens made from stoker fired ash containing 30% LOI measured 2500 psi. RSC is a robust technology that is tolerant of a wide range of carbon, calcium oxide, and calcium sulfate.

The RSC machine at the Environmental Materials Laboratory is a commercial sized unit capable of compacting 2000 pound parts. Laboratory test specimens are nominally 10 pounds but a mold to make 500 to 1000 pound panels has been designed.  Large ash-based blocks and panels will be made for field testing.


Based upon Resonant Shock Compaction of Public Service Company of Colorado Cherokee Plant Class F fly ash and bottom ash this past year, it appears that  the RSC technology can compact high-carbon ash into construction blocks, panels, or aggregate that pass many ASTM concrete and masonry strength and durability standards. These standards include compressive strength of  3000 to 5000 psi,  sodium sulfate aggregate durability, face fired masonry water absorption, and freeze-thaw 300 cycle tests. These tests were performed by an ASTM certified commercial laboratory.

Papers at the last three DOE FETC Conferences on Unburned Carbonaceous Material on Utility Fly Ash reported that the highest valued ash utilization (cement admixture) is "at risk" because low NOx combustion  technology often increases ash carbon content above the ASTM 618 limit of 6%, and the industry preference for 3% or lower. There is considerable effort underway to modify combustion processes to reduce ash carbon content and other efforts to increase alternative high-volume use options for high-carbon ash such as structural fill, agricultural soil amendments, and mine stabilization. Ash use is also limited by transportation cost to market and seasonal demand by the construction industry. Reduced ash use in concrete results in increased cement consumption and an associated one ton of CO2 for each ton of cement clinker produced.

Current research and development is focused on PSCo Cherokee Class F fly ash containing sodium carbonate flue gas conditioning agents and bottom ash, Valmont Class F fly ash and bottom ash, Comanche Class C fly ash, and Hayden bottom ash mixed with fly ash which has been conditioned with limestone ( flue gas desulfurization conditioned fly ash). Other tests include similar ashes, high carbon stoker ash (30% LOI), and circulating fluid bed ash containing highly reactive residual calcined calcium oxide with calcium sulfate.

The RSC market goal is to provide an alternative high-volume, high-valued product utilization of coal combustion products in partnership with electric utilities,  ash brokers, construction companies, and manufacturers of concrete blocks, panels, and bricks. Acceptance of RSC ash-based construction materials is predicated upon successfully demonstrating the strength and durability of these products and obtaining the construction industry certifications from the International Conference of Building Officials, National Evaluation Service (ICBO NES).

Large blocks and panels will be made at the Environmental Materials Laboratory for testing in real applications. A transportable commercial plant will be built. Marketing studies have been performed by MBA students at the University of Denver Daniels School of Business. A preliminary conceptual design including capital and operating costs has been completed. Projected capital and operating costs are quite low.

Several electric utilities, environmental contractors, construction companies, and block manufacturers are participating in evaluation of the RSC technology to convert ash into construction blocks and panels. Waste clay and  mine tailings are also being tested independently and in combination with ash. Specific products of interest to these parties are low cost highway sound barriers, retaining walls. pond liners, and tilt-up building walls. Test specimens containing greater than 50% bottom ash can be sawed, screwed, and nailed like wood.

The University of Denver, Environmental Materials Laboratory,  RSC LLC, and several electric utilities, are continuing studies to understand the unique properties of the RSC formed ash-based products. High-carbon ash formed into high strength products by the RSC process appear to be stronger than conventionally formed high-carbon ash products. RSC particle packing and high-g  compaction of fly ash, bottom ash, and binder only requires about 10% water. This bonding process is being studied.

Acoustic velocity absorption and  scanning electron microscopy have been used to measure ash and RSC product characteristics. A scanning optical microscopy densitometer system has been developed to measure product porosity. Acoustic velocity will be measured to correlate  with product integrity. Differential scanning calorimetry and wide line proton nuclear magnetic resonance can provide information on ash-cement hydration.

The US Department of Energy has funded similar studies of the RSC technology at  the University of Denver, Environmental Materials Laboratory to compact and stabilize radioactive and heavy metal contaminated soils. These studies have been conducted in cooperation with the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site, the DOE Argonne National Laboratories, and the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area. Preliminary results have shown that RSC compacted soils have lower toxicity leach rates than other methods.


Subject: UFTO Report - ORNL 98
Date: Wed, 03 Jun 1998 11:15:40 -0800

The final report from the re-visit to Oak Ridge National Lab is now available.

It is a 24 page (100K) Word doc, so only the front matter is included below in this note.  You can obtain the full text either:
  -- on line in the clients-only part of the UFTO website (html)
  -- on request as an email attachment (Word, RTF, or html)
  -- on request in hardcopy via snail mail


           UFTO Final Report

Technology Transfer Opportunities in the Federal Laboratories

       Oak Ridge National Laboratory
          Oak Ridge, Tennessee

               June 1998

              Prepared for:
  Utility Federal Technology Opportunities (UFTO)

         By:  Edward Beardsworth

This report is part of a series examining technology opportunities at National Laboratories of possible interest to electric utilities


This report details findings about technology and technology transfer opportunities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that might be of strategic interest to electric utilities.  It is a major update and revision materials developed previously, and is based on a visit to the lab in April 1998, and also draws from various publications, collateral information and website content.

ORNL -- Overview & Organization

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a "GOCO" lab (government-owned, contractor operated).  Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. is the contractor that manages ORNL. (Lockheed Martin also manages the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Idaho National Engineering Lab and Sandia National Lab.)


Subject: UFTO Note - Heat Transfer Research, Inc.(HTRI)
Date: Tue, 02 Jun 1998 20:13:57 -0800

(Part of a continuing UFTO goal to identify unique specialized organizations
and resources that can help meet client utilities' technology needs)

Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (HTRI)

HTRI is a for-profit membership R&D consortium focusing on heat transfer in process industries.  Members from all over the world include major engineering firms (e.g., ABB, B&W, Bechtel, Black & Veatch, Brown & Root, GE Power Systems, Kvaerner, Stone & Webster, etc.), major oil and chemicals companies, equipment makers, and exactly one utility (Ontario Hydro).

HTRI wants to increase its involvement with utilities, and has approached UFTO for help.  While their work hasn't yet addressed some of the core power plant systems (steam generators, surface condensers, etc.), they could certainly initiate programs in those areas.

At the same time, utilities do have innumerable other heat exchangers and heat transfer applications that are addressed by HTRI (e.g., shell-and-tube heat exchangers).

Perhaps more important, conventional steam boiler technology is being supplanted by combined cycles -- primarily natural gas-fired at this time, but likely to include more coal, residual oil, and biomass gasification in the future.  The major heat exchanger in a combined cycle plant -- the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) -- is a relatively new type of heat exchanger in terms of widespread commercial use.  There will be many challenging design and operating approaches and challenges associated with HRSGs as combustion turbine and steam turbine designs evolve into higher temperature regimes.

At the other end of the temperature spectrum, the search for improved efficiency is leading to more interest in the use of condensing heat exchangers to extract the last few Btus from flue gas before it goes up the stack.  Clever methods are being developed to avoid corrosion problems and to use the aqueous phase as a scrubbing medium for air pollutants in condensing heat exchangers.  There are other examples of heat exchange R&D needs associated with emerging technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, the Kalina cycle, and fuel cells.

Also, it's worth mentioning that utilities (or ESCOs) could use HTRI resources in their continuing role of helping industrial customers be more efficient, productive and successful.

Thus, there would appear to be a number of ways HTRI and the electric power industry could grow together. As one example, HTRI is planning a new "sub" consortium to address heat exchanger fouling, certainly an important topic for utilities.

Since members advise and direct HTRI's research programs through technical committees, utilities as members would certainly have an influence on the work to be done.  For more extensive projects and special analyses, HTRI is available to conduct proprietary experiments, research, and tests, and create custom software on a contract basis.

-->> UFTO Members are invited to attend the upcoming HTRI Annual Meeting, July 26-31, Amelia Island, FL, which will feature technical presentations and workshops on the IST and EHT codes (described below).
Contact Susan Edwards at HTRI to request a copy of the program agenda.
    tel 409-260-6203    sme@htri-net.com

-->> The next training conference is set for June 8-10 in the Netherlands, on Advanced Thermal Design of Condensers and Vaporizers.  (HTRI computer programs CST, IST, RKH, and RTF will be featured.)  Contact HTRI or see website for details.

  Claudette Beyer, President and CEO  409-260-6222,  cdb@htri-net.com
  Fernando Aguirre, Dir. Marketing   409-260-6200,   fja@htri-net.com
  Heat Transfer Research, Inc.
  1500 Research Parkway, Suite 100
  College Station, Texas 77845 USA
      Tel 409-260-6200   Fax 409-260-6249

The material attached below is excerpted and
adapted from HTRI publications and their website

Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (HTRI), an international research consortium founded in 1962, provides its customers with software modeling and simulation tools based on proprietary research data from industrial-scale heat transfer equipment.  HTRI also produces a wide range of technical publications.  These products are in use by thousands of engineers and designers at over 500 corporate sites worldwide.  HTRI:

1. Conducts research on heat transfer equipment of a type and scale, and with fluids and operating conditions, relevant to industry.
2. Develops methods for the thermal/hydraulic design and rating of heat transfer equipment that are soundly based on experimental data.
3. Creates, maintains, and supports superior quality computer programs that utilize HTRI methods, are user-oriented, and easily interfaced with other programs.
4. Serves as a source of support and expertise addressing current and future needs in heat transfer technology.
5. Recruits and supports staff and consultants or partners who bring the necessary expertise, dedication, and vision.

HTRI products are based on decades of member-sponsored proprietary R&D, and are not available on the open market.  HTRI members have access to HTRI’s product line and become part of a research consortium comprised of industry leaders from around the world—all for less than the salary of a single additional engineer. (Membership fee varies with size of company--to a maximum of approximately $50,000 per year.) Subsidiaries of a member company may also use HTRI products, if they are more than 50% owned.

Joining HTRI is like adding a dedicated team of heat transfer experts to a member's company. Members gain access not only to our software and research data, but also to the collective experience of the staff. HTRI technical support can improve productivity with expert answers to questions about software, methods, correlations, and research, as well as theoretical questions concerning heat transfer and exchanger design.

-- History

Incorporated in 1962, Heat Transfer Research, Inc. was chartered for the purpose of conducting application-oriented research on large-scale equipment in the general field of heat transfer and associated fluid flow, and converting the results into dependable design methods for industrial purposes. This was a depar-ture from the more typical method of companies conducting individual experiments based on university-derived theory. A few years later, the company moved from Bartlesville, Oklahoma, to Alhambra, California, and continued to grow in size and reputation. While in California, HTRI’s experiments were conducted on research units located at C. F. Braun, Inc., an HTRI member.

In 1990, HTRI relocated from California to College Station, Texas, where we built a multi-million dollar research facility with industrial-scale units. This strategic location also provides collaboration opportunities with the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Texas A&M University, one of the United States’ top engineering schools.

-- Research Facilities
The HTRI Research Facility, developed in 1991, is a well-equipped multimillion dollar experimental facility. The site has four research units with supporting facilities and equipment. The facility can be customized to meet the changing needs of our customers. We also are available to conduct research and construct new rigs under contract.

The facility's physical plant includes a 500-horsepower Johnson Boiler with a heating capacity of 17 million Btu/hour and a two-cell Marley Cooling Tower with a cooling capacity of 21 million Btu/hour. The machine shop includes welding equipment, a milling machine, lathe, drill press, band saw, and pipe threader. Instrument calibration and electrical tests are performed on site using a variety of testing components.

A laboratory also is on site to perform tests ensuring compliance with environmental regulations and to analyze test fluids from the research units.

- High Temperature Fouling Unit - provides data for defining process operating conditions and exchanger design features so that fouling of typical industrial fluids can be minimized. A wide variety of fluids can be tested, including gas oils and crude oils. The unit can operate at up to 1000 psig (6,895 kPa) and 800 °F (427 °C). The HTFU has two test sections that can operate simultaneously at different conditions.

- Multipurpose Boiling Unit - provides flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop data for pure fluids, hydrocarbon mixtures, and alcohol-water mixtures. The MBU can operate over a range of conditions typical of industrial heat exchange processes.

- Single Phase Unit - (formerly known as the Plate Heat Exchanger Unit) provides information to develop heat transfer and pressure drop methods in single-phase flow. This unit has two plate-and-frame heat exchangers, a spiral heat exchanger, and a welded plate heat exchanger. The SPU can operate under a wide range of conditions with a variety of process fluids.

- Vertical In Tube Condensation Unit - provides data used to develop heat transfer and pressure drop methods for intube condensation. A variety of fluids including alcohols and hydrocarbon mixtures with and without inerts can be tested. The unit can operate from low vacuum to 450 psia.

-- Software
Software modeling and simulation tools, based on proprietary, relevant, and quality research, helps HTRI members design efficient heat exchangers.

HTRI software methods are derived from extensive research and documented in our publications. Many of the research programs are ongoing, leading to continual improvement of methods and simulations. All software accepts data in U.S. Customary, SI, and MKH units (except our Fired Heater program, which currently accepts U.S. Customary units only). Most programs have identical user interfaces and input structure: process conditions and physical properties are specified similarly, using the same data input lines.  To ease interpretation of data, printed output follows a standard format in nearly all applications.

Interfaces between our software and other computer programs allow easy data transfer to process simulators, mechanical design systems, and database systems. Interfaces are available for software from such companies as AspenTech, B-JAC, Bryan Research & Engi-neering (BR&E), Physical Properties Data Service, ABB Lummus, SimSci, and others. HTRI is a member of the Process Data eXchange Institute (pdXi).

 Before release, every HTRI program undergoes a rigorous testing process on several different platforms. These tests verify software results against HTRI’s proprietary research data. Test sets are extensive, making use of as many as 2,600 separate cases.

- ACE rates and simulates air-cooled heat exchangers and economizers. The program handles forced draft, induced draft, and "fans off" air-cooled heat exchangers. The economizer option also may be used to rate air preheater bundles. ACE is a fully incremental program.

- CST, using a fully incremental approach with HTRI's latest pointwise correlations, designs shell-and-tube condensers from a set of process conditions and rates the performance of a geometrically specified condenser. Used with confidence since 1974, CST handles TEMA E, F, J, and X shells.

- FH simulates the behavior of fired heaters. Its capabilities include the solution of combustion and tube design problems and the simulation of cylindrical heaters, box heaters, and convection tube banks.

- IST rates the performance of geometrically specified shell-and-tube heat exchangers. A fully incremental program, IST contains HTRI's latest pointwise equations for predicting condensing, boiling, and single-phase heat transfer and pressure drop. IST handles TEMA E, F, G, H, J, and X shells.

- PHE rates plate heat exchangers for liquid-phase applications. The program uses average local properties within each plate group. Various plate types may be selected from an automatic data bank or entered manually.

- RKH designs and rates kettle reboiler, column internal bundles, and horizontal thermosiphon reboilers.

- RTF designs and rates shell-and-tube vertical thermosiphons and vertical or horizontal forced-flow reboilers with the boiling on the tube side. The program also rates spiral plate reboilers. RTF is a fully incremental program.

- ST designs single-phase shell-and-tube heat exchangers from a set of process conditions. It also rates the performance of a geometrically specified exchanger. ST handles TEMA E, J, X, H, G, and F shells.

- ST Educational is an educational package for engineers wanting to learn about or review shell and tube heat exchanger calculations. Utilizing the full calculation engine from ST, this product provides companies and educational institutions with an accurate and user-friendly training tool.

- TWALL calculates the mean tubewall metal temperature in each tubepass for a TEMA E shell with fixed tubesheets. The TEMA Standards use these temperatures in their design equations.

- VIB conducts a rigorous analysis of the vibration of a single tube in a tube bundle. Additionally, VIB calculates natural frequencies for up to 15 modes.


This program centers around applied research and data taken from industrial-scale experimental rigs. Findings are published in the Design Manual, data books, and reports, all of which are available only to members. HTRI’s research programs provide the data and correlations which make our software the most accurate available—a distinct advantage over software based only on simulations and theory.

Over 120 reports are available to members. Multi-volume report books, data books, and our design manual provide you with an edge over your competitors. Some of our report areas include

- Agitated Vessels
- Air-cooled Heat Exchangers
- Boiling in Tubes
- Boiling in Kettle Reboilers
- Condensation in Tubes
- Condensation on the Shell Side
- Crossflow Boiling outside Horizontal Tube Bundles
- Extended Surfaces
- Fouling
- General Studies in Boiling
- General Studies in Condensation
- General Studies in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
- Plate Heat Exchangers
- Flow-Induced Vibration in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
- Shellside Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Methods
- Tubeside Enhanced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Methods
- Tubeside Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Methods
- Two-phase Flow

Our data books provide you with raw data from experiments run on HTRI’s industrial-scale research units.

The Design Manual, our most used publication, provides you with a single source for our methods and correla-tions. This manual is also a great place to browse HTRI technology, providing you with an easy way to search for information from our reports. And if you need more detail, each report is referenced in the appropriate section of the Design Manual.

-Training and Interaction
In conjunction with meetings, hands-on software workshops and theoretical short courses are routinely conducted. Software workshops provide participants with practical information on the computer programs, an overview of the program’s inputs and outputs, example cases for discussion, and an actual problem to solve. The length of short courses varies by topic.

If regularly scheduled training sessions don’t meet the need, customized training can be arranged either at HTRI facilities in Texas or at a company’s site. Charges for customized training are based on the specific request.

Interaction is important both to members and to HTRI. For this reason, HTRI holds meetings and training sessions all over the world, providing a wide range of opportunities for members to:

- Establish relationships with HTRI staff and other heat transfer experts from around the world
- Help to shape the direction of future research and development by serving on subcommittees
- Learn new skills at our training and workshop sessions

Members are encouraged to interact with HTRI and each other through Communication Committees. These committees can be formed by any group with common goals, providing a formal means of communication.