Subject: UFTO Note - Fed Energy Mgt Program (FEMP) Videoconf.
Date: Fri, 29 May 1998 08:17:30 -0800

FYI -- UFTO Notes from the last couple of months are now available on a new
page on the UFTO website.


Fed Energy Mgt Program (FEMP) Videoconf.

(Thanks to Scherry Boyer at APS for passing this along.)

Even if you aren't able to attend the videoconf., the agenda description on the website provides some good information about FEMP and the implementation of the technologies listed below.


TeleFEMP Broadcast VI

Energy Technology Solutions for the 90s and Beyond

Tuesday, June 2

2:00 - 3:30 p.m. EDT

Tune in to this 90-minute video conference and learn how sustainable energy technologies can save energy and dollars at Federal facilities. TeleFEMP Broadcast VI will focus on educating Federal energy managers and facility engineers on the engineering principles and the application of photovoltaics, solar hot water, energy effective lighting and ligh ting controls, and fuel cells.

Introduction (You Have the Power for Energy Technology Solutions)
Featured Technologies
Solar Hot Water
Energy Effective Lighting and Lighting Control Systems
Fuel Cells

To participate in the video conference, complete and fax the registration
form (Wordperfect [122 Kb] file).

Please send any comments, questions, or suggestions to:


Subject: UFTO Note - DOE Elec Reliability TF Papers
Date: Thu, 21 May 1998 23:23:11 -0800


Two papers were approved by the DOE Task Force on Electric System Reliability at its meeting on May 12.

 - "Technical Issues in Transmission System Reliability"
 - "Ancillary Services and Bulk-Power Reliability"

They were just posted (May 21) on the SEAB website, along with cover letters,in PDF Acrobat format.

They can be found under "Minutes and Reports" at

(If you are unable to access/download them, let me know and I'll create a text only version to send you.)


Subject: UFTO Note - Clean Power Road Map
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 09:55:56 -0800
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>

Clean Power Generation Technologies Road Map

DOE is embarking on a series of vision setting and planning exercises that may significantly impact the direction of Federal research.  These "Roadmapping" exercises are underway or planned in the areas of environmental management, fossil energy and energy efficiency/ renewable energy programs, as well as other selected programs within the Office of Energy Research.

The "Clean Power Generation Technologies Road Map" will examine a full range of production options, plus end-use efficiency, power transmission and distribution and the effect of regulatory structures.  The effort spans both fossil and efficiency divisions of DOE, to help government and industry to:  - determine the technology requirements to produce clean, affordable, and reliable power generation options - identify the federal, state, and industry roles in technology development, and - define the timing of needed RD&D investments over the next several decades.

The road map is to cover all fuel forms, conversion and enabling technologies (e.g. storage), and waste streams and effluents related to stationary power generation, including both central and dispersed generation, and co-production of electricity with steam, fuels, chemicals and gases.  In light of climate concerns, a long term view will reach to 2100, with emphasis on the 2020-2050 time frame.

The road map is due to be completed in 2Q 1999.  Initial work will be by a core group of about 12 persons, who will develop the overall vision and "destinations", and oversee the roadmap process.  The first "visioning workshop" meeting of the core group will be held in Washington on June 10-11. A select group of senior executives from utilities and IPPs have been invited (Duke, AEP, SMUD, Enron, Trigen, Onsite, Edison Int'l, Calif Energy Commission).  At this stage, DOE wants only top level people to attend (CEO's, Sr. VPs, etc.) and not lower level representatives.

Participation will be broadened to other groups later on, in a series of RD&D planning workshops. Drafts will be circulated for comments.

Initial Implementation Team:
- Victor Der (Fossil Energy)  301-903-2700,   victor.der@hq.doe.gov
- Doug Carter (Fossil Energy)  202-586-9684,   douglas.carter@hq.doe.gov
- William Parks (Energy Effic/Renew)  202-586-2093,   william.parks@hq.doe.gov
- Joe Galdo (Energy Effic/Renew)  202-586-0518,    joseph.galdo@hq.doe.gov
- Trevor Cook  (Nuclear Energy)   301-903-7046,   trevor.cook@hq.doe.gov
- Gil Gilliland (Oak Ridge)  423-574-9920,    ig7@ornl.gov
- **Richard Scheer (Energetics, Inc.)  202-479-2748,   rscheer@energeticsinc.com
                 **suggested point of contact

      (See New Technology Week, March 2, 1998 for additional background).

Note:  Due to the potential impact on national research priorities, UFTO companies should be aware of these planning exercises and may want to offer their input and participation at the appropriate time.  I am in contact with the organizers, and they are aware of our interest.


Subject: UFTO Note - E-Beam Stack Gas Scrubbing
Date: Sun, 03 May 1998 18:48:52 -0800
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>


E-Beam Stack Gas Scrubbing

This might be titled, "Son of Ebara", for those of you familiar with the history.  It appears that dramatically better performance may be possible.

This text was provided to me by a private development group with access and connections to the new e-beam technology that is mentioned.  I've editted the letter to remove some of the proprietary details.  Even so, important ideas are disclosed.  I would ask that you be especially careful not share it with anyone outside your company (as with all UFTO materials).  If you're seriously interested in pursuing this, I will put you in touch with the sources.

Dear Edward:

Below, please, find a short overview of both old and new developments in e-beam processing of industrial exhaust gases.

E-Beam Processing of Industrial Exhaust Gases

-- Background
In the past few years new methods of decomposition of VOCs as well as inorganic compounds in flue gases have been developed, primarily involving low-temperature, non-equilibrium plasmas used to selectively decompose organic molecules. The high concentration of electrons, ions, excited species and radicals make these plasmas well suited for driving decomposition reactions that otherwise could be initiated only at very high gas temperature.

Such plasma methods are of particular interest in the decomposition of dilute concentrations of halogenated organic compounds in carrier gas streams such as dry or wet (about 10% relative humidity) air. This type of gaseous waste stream is encountered for example in vapor extraction from soil, air stripping from contaminated water and air pollution control.

Low temperature, non-equilibrium plasmas can be generated by electron beams. They operate at atmospheric pressure in large volumes and in a highly controllable fashion making very high throughput possible. It has been also demonstrated that electron beam becomes even more efficient  in decomposition of certain  VOCs when combined with certain type of electrical discharge.

Advantages of e-beam induced decomposition over thermal processes become even more pronounced at dilute concentrations of VOCs in the exhaust gases. Because of the high non-equilibrium level of ionization and the selectivity of plasma-chemical decomposition processes the energy required for a given decomposition of dilute concentrations of “electron hungry” VOCs can be 10 to 100 times less than in thermal processes such as incineration, where energy is channeled to all molecules in the gaseous waste stream.

-- The EBARA Experience
The Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing (EBDS) process has been first proposed as an efficient method for the simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx from industrial flue gas in early 1970s. In this process, the e-beam energy generates high concentration of oxidants (OH, HO2, O3) converting SO2 and NOx to nitric and sulfuric acid which in turn form solid powder of ammonium nitrate and sulfate in the presence of added ammonia (NH3).

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the University of Tokyo have carried out the first research on EBDS in 1970.  Follow up technical development by EBARA Corporation lead to the first 10,000 Nm3/hr pilot plant built for a sintering plant at Yahata Works Nippon Steel Corp in 1977.  At this plant a flue gas at temperatures T=70-90 C containing 200 ppm of SO2 and 180 ppm of NOx has been treated by 2 x 750keV/45kW e-beam accelerators.

In the US the first and only EBARA-process demonstration unit with a maximum flow rate of 30,000 Nm3/hr has been put in operation in June 1985 at a coal fired power plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. At this plant 2 x 800 keV/80kW electron accelerators has been employed treating 1,000 ppm of SO2 and 400 ppm of NOx in a flue gas at temperatures T=66-150 C.

In December 1985 a 20,000 Nm3/hr pilot plant has been built at Badenwerk, Karlsruhe, FRG at 550 MW coal fired facility employing two 300KeV/90 kW accelerators to treat 50-500 ppm of SO2 and 300-500 ppm of NOx in 70-100 C exhaust gas. In early 1990s similar e-beam treatment pilot units have been built in China, Poland and Russia.

One of the main limitations of EBARA process has been a considerable energy requirement for oxidation of SO2/NOx in an air stream, which amounts in average to about 10 eV/molecule.  For a coal fired 300 MW electrical power plant this translates to 12 MW (4% of the electrical power generated by the plant required e-beam power.  Back in 1980s the most powerful accelerators were below 100 kW, so 12 MW installation would require 120 x100 kW accelerators and the total accelerator costs in the access of $180 mln. were prohibiting.

-- What's New
A new generation of powerful accelerators manufactured in Russia which can deliver 1MW of e-beam power for the cost of about $1.5 million per unit, can already reduce cost of EBARA process by order of magnitude.

Moreover, a synergetic approach combining electrical discharge and electron beam may allow another tenfold decrease in flue gas processing cost.  This is done by essentially substituting much less expensive power of corona discharge for most of the expensive e-beam power.  This process maintains all the advantages of e-beam processing such as stability of operation and uniform treatment of large volumes and high mass flows of flue gas -- for a fraction of cost compare with e-beam treatment alone.  Note that corona discharge alone, without e-beam stimulating effect, suffers from intrinsic non-uniformities and instabilities which greatly reduce its efficiency for industrial scale applications.

Experiments on SO2 oxidation in e-beam stimulated corona discharge have been conducted.  We were investigating the plasma chemical processes in an electron beam driven plasma reactor for efficient decomposition of SO2 , NOx or any VOC in carrier gases at atmospheric pressures.

The reactor used an electron beam to stimulate corona discharge at sub-breakdown pulsed electric field.  A combination of e-beam and superimposed electrical field in the form of stimulated corona discharge creates plasma with highly controllable electron density and temperature and therefore highly controllable chemical reaction rates.

Synergetic effect of SO2 decomposition by the combined action of e-beam and corona discharge was estimated by the coefficient K equal to the ratio of the discharge energy Wc,  consumed from high-voltage source, to the energy Wb deposited by electron beam within the volume of the discharge:
 K = Wc / Wb

It has been demonstrated that under certain experimental conditions the energy of discharge consumed from high-voltage source can exceed e-beam energy input by more than 300 times.  In other words, a low cost high-voltage rectifier instead of a high-cost electron accelerator provided about 99.7% of the flue gas ionization energy.  As a result the same SO2 decomposition effect in e-beam stimulated corona discharge can be achieved with 300 times lower e-beam power compare with irradiation by e-beam alone.

There some indications that shorter e-beam pulses and higher discharge threshold voltage Umax may also lead to the significant decrease of energy cost per oxidation of one SO2 molecule from a typical value of 10 eV/mol down to 3 or even 1eV/mol.  However, even at the lower Umax  values rather efficient SO2 oxidation process is taking  place.

The main purpose of these initial experiments on SO2 oxidation was to demonstrate significance of synergetic effect in e-beam stimulated corona discharge.  Discovered synergetic effect allows efficient SO2 decomposition under the conditions when only 0.3% of the total ionization energy is provided by an electron beam with the rest coming from a low cost electrical discharge. Further experiments are necessary to determine the optimum conditions for most efficient decomposition of SO2./NOx mixtures, as well as VOCs in industrial exhaust gases.

We are open to any form of collaboration with a US utility company or research organization, which would enable us to continue these very promising experiments.

I look forward to your comments and suggestions.


Subject: UFTO Forward - DOE Selects Potential Breakthrough Approaches for Carbon Sequestration
Date: Thu, 30 Apr 1998

Forwarding announcement directly from DOE Fossil website.  If you have any difficulty receiving it in your email system and would like a text copy, let me know.  You can also use the URL below to go directly to the website.

Issued on April 29, 1998
DOE Selects Potential Breakthrough Approaches For Removing Greenhouse Gases from Ecosystem

>From Super Algae to Deep Ocean Carbon Disposal

The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected an initial group of research projects to pursue a goal that could ultimately determine the long-range future of global fossil fuel use -- the inexpensive capture and permanent disposal of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. These cutting-edge research projects range from the use of carbon dioxide absorbing algae to deep-ocean greenhouse gas disposal.

The selected projects include a diverse mix of novel concepts, including the use of CO2-absorbing algae growing on artificial reefs or encased in bioscrubbers; the disposal of greenhouse gases in deep aquifers or on the ocean floor; and innovative chemical processes and membranes that separate CO2 from the flue gases of fossil fuel power plants and factories. Each project will receive approximately $50,000 for the initial phase. Projects that proceed into later development phases could receive up to $1.5 million each.



U.S. Department of Energy              [Home | Site Index | Search | Help]


Issued on April 29, 1998

 DOE Selects Potential Breakthrough Approaches For Removing Greenhouse Gases from Ecosystem         From Super Algae to Deep Ocean Carbon Disposal

The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected an initial group of research projects to pursue a goal that could ultimately determine the long-range future of global fossil fuel use -- the inexpensive capture and permanent disposal of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. These cutting-edge research projects range from the use of carbon dioxide absorbing algae to deep-ocean greenhouse gas disposal.

Secretary of Energy Federico Pe?a today announced grants to 12 research teams that will begin exploring whether practical, affordable methods can be developed to prevent carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases from building up in the atmosphere.

"Such processes could be the revolutionary breakthroughs that break the link between the world's use of fossil fuels and concerns over global climate change," said Pe?a. "We are beginning the first steps today, but if the path leads to realistic technologies, it may become much easier for the United States and other nations to implement effective greenhouse gas reduction strategies."

The selected projects include a diverse mix of novel concepts, including the use of CO2-absorbing algae growing on artificial reefs or encased in bioscrubbers; the disposal of greenhouse gases in deep aquifers or on the ocean floor; and innovative chemical processes and membranes that separate CO2 from the flue gases of fossil fuel power plants and factories. Each project will receive approximately $50,000 for the initial phase. Projects that proceed into later development phases could receive up to $1.5 million each.

Secretary Pe?a kicked off the new effort last September in a speech at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh where he called on the nation's scientific and technical community to "look beyond what is currently feasible" and develop breakthrough concepts for sequestering or recycling greenhouse gases. Sixty-two proposals responded to the challenge and 12 were selected.

In the President's FY 1999 budget proposal, DOE has recommended expanding carbon sequestration research efforts with activities focusing on both the science of carbon management, and the application of innovative techniques for removing and permanently storing carbon gases.

Following is a brief description of the projects.

* Louisiana State University,Baton Rouge, LA
   : Dr. Charles E. Graham, (504) 388-3386

Project: "PH-Neutral Concrete for Attached Microalgae and Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Fixation" (Abstract) - Louisiana State University will study the capture of CO2 by microalgae supported on artificial reefs. These reefs would be manufactured with cement products especially tailored for microalgae attachment. The novel aspect is the use of supercritical CO2 to neutralize the alkaline cement mixture. After this treatment, the cement has a near neutral pH, which allows immediate attachment of pH-sensitive marine microalgae to the artificial reef. Attached microalgae and algae beds on reefs are 20 times more efficient for CO2 fixation compared to algae in the open ocean when considered on an area basis. A portion of the carbon in the biomass produced will be permanently sequestered in the deep-ocean.

* McDermott Technologies, Inc., Alliance, OH
   : Mr. Ray L. Posey, (303) 829-7422

Project: "Large-Scale CO2 Transportation and Deep Ocean Sequestration" (Abstract) - McDermott Technology Inc., in collaboration with the Hawaii National Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii, will study the viability of large-scale CO2 transportation and deep ocean storage. Phase I activities include a technical and preliminary economic feasibility study of a large-scale CO2 transportation and disposal system, focused on extending the application of pipe-laying technology well beyond the current depth limit of 1300 meters. Emphasis will be placed on injection at depths of 3000 meters or more to avoid adverse environmental impacts. Two options will be examined for transporting and disposing the captured CO2. In one case, CO2 will be pumped from a land-based collection center through a long pipeline laying on the ocean floor. Another case will consider oceanic tanker transport of liquid CO2 to an offshore floating platform on a barge for vertical injection to the ocean floor. Future work will focus on the analytical and experimental simulations of liquid CO2 dissolution and dispersion, laboratory-scale corrosion testing, and further conceptual and engineering evaluation of transportation and disposal options.

* Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC
   : Mr. Dave Obringer, (919) 541-7081

Project: "Recovery of Carbon Dioxide in Advanced Fossil Processes Using a Membrane Reactor" (Abstract) - Research Triangle Institute will develop an inorganic, palladium-based membrane device that reforms hydrocarbon fuels to mixtures of hydrogen and CO2 and, at the same time, separates the high-value hydrogen. The remaining gas, predominantly CO2, is recovered in a compressed form. The hydrogen could be used in future fuel cell systems or advanced turbine power systems. Pure hydrogen, when burned to generate power, produces water vapor as the only product of combustion. The proposed work will be conducted in three phases. Phase I will demonstrate the electroless plating techniquefor depositing palladium on a ceramic substrate and will develop a membrane reactor module. Phase II will involve reforming reaction and hydrogen separation experiments in the bench scale test facility. Phase II will demonstrate the technology at the proof-of-concept scale.

* Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI
   : Ms. Anita Quinn, (906) 487-2225

Project: "Low Cost Bioscrubber for Greenhouse Gas Control" (Abstract) - Michigan Technological University proposes a novel, algae growing bioscrubber that could be retrofitted to existing power plants or applied to new power plants. By optimizing the photosynthetic conditions for the algae in the scrubber, algae can grow rapidly, consuming CO2 and, perhaps, other greenhouse gases. Mature algae will be harvested and processed to produce value-added products and energy. Using a plant that generates 100 megawatts of electricity each hour, researchers estimate that about 800 million kilowatt hours of electricity can be generated annually from the biomass produced in a bioscrubber.

* University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND
   : Mr. Edwin Olson, (701) 777-4278

Project: "Novel Systems for Sequestering and Utilizing CO2" (Abstract) - The Energy and Environmental Research Center of the University of North Dakota will develop new chemistry and catalysts to convert CO2 to useful polymers in industrial quantities. Polymers having different properties will be synthesized for specific end uses. For example, water soluble polymers with high viscosities could be produced for enhanced oil recovery projects, while others could be developed for use in strong structural resins or ion-exchange materials. The proposal envisions novel, solar-powered photoreactors that use sunlight for converting CO2 to simple alcohols for subsequent polymer synthesis.

* Northwest Fuel Development, Inc., Lake Oswego, OR
   : Dr. Peet M. Soot, (503) 699-9836

Project: "Sequential Carbon Dioxide Removal from Stack Gases and Sequestration Using Coal Seams" (Abstract) - Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) will develop a unique system for removing and sequestering CO2 by injecting power plant flue gas into abandoned coal mines and using the residual coal in the mines to filter out and retain the carbon dioxide. Reducing the pressure in the undeground mines would release the concentrated carbon dioxide, allowing it to be compressed and injected into underlying deep unmineable coal seams. Most of the coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are located in or near coal basins, which could be suitable for this type of processing. This multi-phased effort will be conducted at the Nelms Mine site in Harrison County, Ohio. The initial portion of the effort will consist of a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the process. Laboratory and bench scale tests will take place in Phase II, and a field demonstration unit will be built and operated at the Nelms Mine during Phase III.

* The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
   : Ms. Yvonne Murray, (512) 471-2338

Project: "Optimal Geological Environments for Carbon Dioxide Disposal in Saline Aquifers in the U.S." (Abstract) - Saline aquifers have great potential for the long-term sequestration of greenhouse gas emissions including CO2. This study will help fill the information gap between studies using idealized aquifers and the often poorly known properties of real aquifers. This effort will develop a data base of saline aquifers in the U.S. where geological conditions promote the greatest probability of success of CO2 sequestration projects. Standard techniques for hydrocarbon exploration and development such as reservoir characterization and geological formation analysis will be used to make these predictions.

* Battelle, Columbus, OH
   : Mr. Ralph Henricks, (614) 424-5693

Project: "Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Aquifer Media" (Abstract) - The disposal mechanism to be studied in this project involves deep-well injection of supercritical phase CO2 in aquifers that are deeper than 800m and have no known economic resources. Battelle will conduct basic research on aquifer processes. Researchers will perform a series of laboratory experiments to determine the chemical processes controlling the fate of injected CO2 in different aquifer settings. The major focus will be on the potential resources for disposal in the Midwest United States in a region with one of the highest CO2 emission rates in the nation.

* Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA
   : Mr. S. M. Morris, (610) 481-8282

Project: "CO2 Capture from Industrial Process Gases by High-Temperature Pressure Swing Adsorption" (Abstract) - Air Products and Chemicals Inc. will develop a potential breakthrough, low-cost technology to capture CO2 from flue gases and other process gases. Specifically, the proposal focuses on further developing new water-tolerant, high-temperature sorbent materials and combining them with novel process concepts. Air Products will develop process cycles for the temperature and pressure ranges of interest to recover CO2 from targeted industries. Air Products then proposes to demonstrate the technology at a selected commercial site.

* Tampa Electric Company, Tampa, FL
   : Mr. Charles R. Black, (813) 228-4111

Project: "The Removal and Recovery of Carbon Dioxide from Syngas and Acid Gas Streams in an IGCC Power Plant for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases" (Abstract) - Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station, built as part of the joint government-industry Clean Coal Technology Program, is a state-of-the-art 250 MW(e) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC power technology provides an ideal opportunity for CO2 capture when oxygen rather than air is used. Coal-derived gas is produced in a highly-concentrated, pressurized form that allows for the use of a variety of solvents that can capture CO2 from the gas stream prior to combustion. Engineering studies will be performed to evaluate the technical and economic merits of alternative systems that could be demonstrated at the Polk Power Station. In Phase III and beyond, the selected recovery system would be built and operated at the plant.

* TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO
   : Mr. John D. Wright, (303) 422-7819

Project: "A Novel CO2 Separation System" (Abstract) - TDA Research, Inc., proposes a "Sorbent Energy Transfer System" in which the fossil fuel (gasified coal or natural gas) transfers its energy to reduce a metal oxide, producing steam and high-pressure CO2 that can be sequestered with little additional compression energy. The steam would be used to drive a steam turbine to produce electricity. The metal is then reoxidized in air, producing heat to raise the temperature of a high-pressure stream of air or nitrogen to drive a gas turbine to generate more electricity. The oxidized metal is sent to the reducing vessel to repeat the cycle.

* Institute for Environmental Management, Inc. (IEM), Palo Alto, CA-
   : Mr. Don Augenstein, (650) 856-2850

Project: "Landfill Operation for Carbon Sequestration and Maximum Methane Emission Control" (Abstract) - Working at the Yolo County Central Landfill outside Davis, CA, the Institute for Environmental Management, Inc., will study a way to accelerate the production of methane from landfills and capture the methane using surface membrane covers. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas with approximately 20 times as much greenhouse effect as CO2. The project, to be conducted cooperatively with Yolo County and the California Energy Commission, will involve two demonstration cells at the landfill, each containing approximately 9000 tons of waste. Techniques will be applied to promote decay of the landfill waste to provide more rapid and complete methane generation. A gas-impermeable membrane will be used as a cover over the landfill to prevent the methane from escaping into the atmosphere. Gas-permeable layers in the cover will conduct the methane to a collection point.

For additional information, contact:
Robert C. Porter, (202) 586-6503 e-mail: robert.porter@hq.doe.gov


Subject: UFTO Note - 12th Ann. Conf Fossil Energy Materials
Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998


Just obtained the program for this upcoming conference..

Twelfth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

Knoxville, Tennessee
May 12-14, 1998

 The Twelfth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials will review the work performed by the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program. The AR&TD Materials Program provides needed long-range research in areas not addressed by the Department of Energy line programs and focuses on the unique needs of fossil energy systems which cannot be met by currently available materials. The intent of the AR&TD Materials Program is to provide major materials developments that can dramatically affect the feasibility of some fossil energy systems concepts. Research is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities.

Current research activities will be described in oral presentations and posters by the researchers working on the AR&TD Materials Program. These technical presentations will address research on ceramic composites, iron aluminide alloys, advanced high-temperature alloys, and functional materials such as inorganic membranes, filters, activated carbon absorbents, and solid oxide fuel cells. Several developments are in the demonstration and commercialization stage. The status of these technology transfer activities will be presented.

Conference Details
The Twelfth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and ORNL, will be held May 12-14, 1998, at the Hilton Knoxville, 501 West Church Avenue, Knoxville, Tennessee. Your registration fee of $150 (in U.S. dollars) includes: continental breakfast, refreshment breaks, a buffet reception, the extended abstracts, and a copy of the proceedings mailed to the registrants after the meeting.
The registration fee of $150 (in U.S. dollars) is due on or before May 1, 1998 and is non-refundable after May 1. Credit cards are not accepted.
A block of rooms is reserved until April 15, 1997, at the Hilton Knoxville (423-523-2300) at a rate of $64 per night plus tax. When making your reservations, please mention the Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.
For more information, please contact the conference coordinator, Judy Fair, at 423-576-7270 (fax: 423-574-5812).


                 PRELIMINARY PROGRAM
                 Knoxville, Tennessee
                   May 12-14, 1998

  SESSION I - Ceramic Composites and Functional Materials

Tuesday, May 12, 1998

  7:00  Registration and Continental Breakfast
  8:00  Welcome and Introductory Remarks, Program Managers, DOE  and ORNL
  8:20  Keynote Address -  Marvin I. Singer,
           Sr Advisor for Advanced Research,Office of Fossil Energy, DOE
  8:40  Invited Speaker -  Deborah Haught, Program Manager
           Ceramic Fiber-Reinforce Ceramic Composites,
           Office of Industrial Technologies, DOE
  9:00  Development of Oxidation-Resistant Composite Materials and Interfaces
           R.A. Lowden, ORNL
  9:30  Environmental Barrier Coatings
           J. A. Haynes, ORNL
 10:00  BREAK

 10:20  Corrosion Protection of SiC Based Ceramics with CVD Mullite Coatings
           V. Sarin, Boston University
 10:50  Iron-Aluminide Filters for IGCCs and PFBCs
           P. F. Tortorelli, ORNL
 11:20  Exposure Testing of Materials at Galatin Power Plant
           J. L. Blough, Foster Wheeler
 11:50  LUNCH

  1:15  Development of Nondestructive Eval Methods for Structural Ceramics
           W. A. Ellingson, Argonne National Lab
  1:45  Mechanical Performance of Hi-Nicalon/CVI-SiC Composites with Multilayer SiC/C Interfaces
           W. A. Curtin,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ
  2:15  Modification of Slags and Monolithic Refractories to Reduce Corrosion Rates
           J. P. Hurley Univ of N Dakota Energy & Environ Research Center
  2:45  BREAK
  3:00  Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of alloys in FBC and Mixed-Gas Environments
           K. Natesan,Argonne National Lab
  3:30  Solid State Electrolyte Systems
           L. R. Pederson, Pacific Northwest Lab
  4:00  Ceramic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation
           D. F. Fain,  East Tennessee Technology Park

  4:30  ADJOURN


  SESSION II - Ceramic, New Alloys, and Functional Materials

            Tuesday, May 12, 1998
               5:30 - 7:30 p.m.


 Development of Scale-Up CVI System for Tubular Geometries
   T. M. Besmann, ORNL
 Mass Transport Measurements and Modeling for Chemical Vapor Infiltration
   T. L. Starr, Georgia Institute of Technology
 Thermal Cycling Characteristics of Plasma Synthesized Mullite Films
   I. Brown, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
 A Carbon Fiber Based Monolithic Adsorbent for Gas Separation
   T. D. Burchell, ORNL
 Mechanisms of Defect Complex Formation and Environmental-Assisted Fracture  Behavior of Iron Aluminides
   B. R. Cooper, West Virginia University
 Study of Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Cr2Nb-Based Alloys: Phase Stability in  Nb-Cr-Ni Ternary Systems
   P. Liaw, Univ of Tennessee
 Weld Overlay Cladding With Iron Aluminides
   G. M. Goodwin, ORNL
 High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Iron-Aluminide Alloys and Coatings
   P. F. Tortorelli, ORNL
 Electro-Spark Deposition Technology
   R. N. Johnson, Pacific Northwest Lab
   R. Walters, Albany Research Center
 Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes
   B. K. Kad, Univ of California at San Diego
 Reduction in Defect Content of ODS Alloys
   A. R. Jones, Univ of Liverpool
 Low-Aluminum Content Iron Aluminum Alloys
   V. K. Sikka, ORNL
 Mo-Si Alloy Development
   J. H. Schneibel, ORNL

              SESSION III -
    Workshop on Materials for Separation Processes for Vision 21 Systems

Wednesday, May 13, 1998

 7:00  Registration and Continental Breakfast

 8:00  Speaker: William Fulkerson
           President's Committee of Advisors on Science and
           Technology (PCAST) Energy R&D Panel - Chairman
           Fossil Energy Committee
 8:30  Speaker: Howard Feibus, Director
           Office of Advanced Research, Fossil Energy, DOE
This year's workshop will focus on separations issues particularly
as they apply to the FE Vision 21 concept. Although Vision 21 embodies
several technologies in yet-to-be-defined configurations, materials
for separations systems will be critical to any and all of the
possible technology elements of a Vision 21 plant. Separations process
include, among others, gas-gas separations, such as the separation of
hydrogen from synthesis gas or from carbon dioxide, air separation to
produce oxygen, and gas-solid separation devices, i.e., hot-gas
filters. Representatives from companies working on Vision 21
technologies will establish a commercial perspective for the
separations processes and materials required for these systems. The
objective of the workshop will be to establish the highest priority
materials developments for these separations systems, and determine
how well the AR&TD Materials Program is addressing these priorities.


     SESSION IV - New Alloys

      Thursday, May 14, 1998

 7:30  Registration and Continental Breakfast

 8:00  Welcome and Introductory Remarks
 8:10  Speaker:
       John Stringer, Executive Technical Fellow
       Strategic Science and Technology, EPRI
 8:30  Development of ODS Fe3Al Alloys
       I.G. Wright, ORNL
 9:00  The Influence of Processing on Microstructure and Properties of Iron Aluminides
       R. N. Wright, Idaho National Engineering Lab
 9:30  Iron Aluminide Weld Overlay Coatings for Boiler Tube Protection in Coal-fired Low NOx Boilers
       J. N. DuPont, Lehigh University
10:00  BREAK
10:15  Corrosion Performance of Iron Aluminides in Fossil Energy Environments
       K. Natesan, Argonne National Lab
10:45  Effects of Titanium and Zirconium on Iron Aluminide Weldments,
       G. R. Edwards Colorado School of Mines
11:15  Microstructure of Mechanical Behavior of Alumina Scales and Coatings
       P. F. Tortorelli  ORNL
11:45  LUNCH
 1:15  Investigation of Austenitic Alloys for Advanced Heat Recovery and Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems
       R. W. Swindeman, ORNL
 1:45  Fireside Corrosion Testing of Candidate Superheater Tube Alloys,  Coatings, and Claddings - Phase II
       J. L. Blough, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation
 2:15  Processing of Advanced Austenitics for Recuperator Service
       P. J. Maziasz, ORNL
 2:45  Ultrahigh Temperature Intermetallic Alloys
       C. T. Liu and M. Brady, ORNL
 3:15  SHS Processing and Properties of Intermetallic Alloys and Composites
       W. Riley,Albany Research Center
 3:45  ADJOURN


Subject: UFTO Note - DOE 11 Lab Study on technology, greenhouse gases
Date: Mon, 27 Apr 1998

At long last, DOE's "11 Lab" study has been released.
The DOE press release is attached below.

The report is on the web (pdf acrobat format) at

Oak Ridge will have hardcopies available shortly.
Contact Brenda Campbell, 423-574-4333, xbd@ornl.com

Here's a part of an UFTO Note (11/97).
The work began in June 96 following ClintonÕs speech to the U.N. Each of the 11 labs that worked on the study took the lead on a specific technology area, such as efficiency in buildings, efficiency in transportation, fossil power generation, nuclear, renewables, cross-cutting areas, basic research, and carbon sequestration.  It was a bottom-up effort, looking in depth at the technology itself. There was no analytical modelling of the overall energy system or economy.

NREL and ORNL were the lead labs for the effort, with direction and involvement at the lab director level.

The report concludes that science and technology can do a lot, but that appropriate policies and funding are needed for commercialization.  Appendices detail 50 separate technology categories, with order-of-magnitude range estimates of carbon emission reductions to the year 2030 and beyond. ------------




  National Laboratories Highlight Pathways to Cleaner Environment

The United States has many options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions through new, cleaner energy technologies, the directors of 11 of the Department of Energy's national laboratories conclude in a study released today. The directors recommend aggressively developing a wide range of technologies over the next several decades.

The directors' report, Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, outlines almost 50 technology pathways that could eliminate the emissions of hundreds of millions of tons of carbon per year. They include such near-term practical technologies as electric hybrid vehicles, high-efficiency lighting, super-insulating windows, and passive solar heating and cooling of buildings. They also include mid-term to longer term technologies that need further development, such as fuel cells for transportation, microturbines, broad use of biomass fuels and hydrogen-fueled energy systems.

"Technologies already being developed by industry and by national laboratories are key to meeting President Clinton's challenge to reduce greenhouse gases while contributing to economic growth," said Secretary of Energy Federico Pe?a. "This report lays out what we need to do to bring our nation's best scientific and engineering talent to bear on solving this problem. With the support of American consumers and businesses, we can have a major impact on the kind of world we leave for future generations."

The 11 laboratory directors recommend that the federal government lead a vigorous national push to develop energy technologies during the next three decades to achieve a major reduction in the risk of global warming. While the study does not recommend specific funding levels for technology research, development and deployment, it estimates some increases will be needed to push critical technologies to the commercialization stage. A report issued last year by the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology reached a similar conclusion about the need for increased investment in energy research and development. Also, government-industry partnerships are essential, the laboratory study says, to overcome scientific, technical and commercial challenges to developing the recommended technologies.

The United States emits 23 percent of the world's carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Some 90 percent of those emissions come from energy use, and about 85 percent of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere comes from burning fossil fuels. The study examines technologies that can reduce emissions in three ways -- by using energy more efficiently, reducing the amount of carbon released through energy use and increasing the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere.

Technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will become available at different times over the next 30 years, according to the study. In the first decade, significant advances in energy efficiency technologies -- such as in appliances, heating and cooling systems, and transportation -- would produce the greatest reductions in emissions. During the following 10 years, research-based advances in clean energy technologies could greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These could include high-efficiency natural gas systems, renewable energy such as solar and wind, and fuel cells. And by 2030, research in carbon sequestration -- carbon storage, carbon absorption and carbon removal by oceans, forests and soils -- could produce valuable results.

The study stresses the importance of pursuing a number of technologies at each stage to provide choices and flexibility for energy users. The 47 options the lab directors recommend cover almost all sectors of the economy, including buildings, industry, transportation and agriculture.

Admiral Richard Truly, director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Dr. Alvin Trivelpiece, director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, co-chaired the technology study. The participating labs were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Federal Energy Technology Center, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories.

NOTE: The study, Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, is on the World Wide Web at: http://www.ornl.gov/climate_change The files are in PDF format and can be read in Acrobat Reader.



Subject: UFTO Note - EPRI-GRI-DOE Fuel Cell Workshop
Date: Thu, 23 Apr 1998 15:58:14 -0800

This notice just came in from the DOE Fuel Cell forum

If you're interested in fuel cells you should be on this email list!

 To subscribe:

For a good overview of fuel cells and the DOE program, see:

  *** I have confirmed that THIS MEETING IS OPEN TO EVERYONE ****

Joint EPRI-GRI-DOE Workshop

(Similar to DOE's Annual Fuel Cell Contractors Review Meeting)

May 18-20, 1998

Sir Francis Drake Hotel
450 Powell Street
San Francisco, Ca.
(415) 392-7755 or 1-(800) 227-5480
Rate for workshop block of rooms is $149.00 (through 4/20/98)

Registration Fee of $200.00 includes proceedings, continental breakfasts and

Conference Contact Person:
     Melita Guellert, EPRI Conference Manager
     (650) 855-2010      MGueller@epri.com

Technical Info:
      John B. OÕSullivan, EPRI (650) 855-2292


Welcome/Introduction            1:00 - 1:15 PM
ONSI                       (PAFC) Status  1:15 - 1:40 PM
M-C Power                  (MCFC) Demos   1:40 - 2:05 PM
Energy Research Corp.      (MCFC) Demos    2:05 - 2:30 PM
Westinghouse               (SOFC-CT) Demos 2:30 - 2:55 PM
BREAK            2:55 - 3:20 PM
A. D. Little Inc.               Fuel Processing 3:20 - 3:45 PM
Hydrogen Burner Technology      Fuel Processing 3:45 - 4:10 PM
SOFCo                           Fuel Processing 4:10 - 4:35 PM
Northwest Power Systems         Fuel Processing 4:35 - 5:00 PM

ERC                   MCFC 8:00 - 8:25 AM
M-C P                 MCFC 8:25 - 8:50 AM
Argonne National Lab  MCFC 8:50 - 9:15 AM
Westinghouse          SOFC Research 9:15 - 9:40 AM
BREAK      9:40 - 10:05 AM
ZTEK                  SOFC Systems 10:05 - 10:30 AM
TMI                   SOFC Systems 10:30 - 10:55 AM
AlliedSignal          SOFC Systems 10:55 - 11:20 AM
Ceramatec/SOFCo       SOFC Systems 11:20 - 11:45 AM
LUNCH      11:45 - 1:15 PM
University of Utah (Virkar)   SOFC Research 1:15 - 1:40 PM
U. of Missouri (Anderson)     SOFC Research 1:40 - 2:05 PM
U. of Pennsylvania (Worrell)  SOFC Research 2:05 - 2:30 PM
Pac NW Natl. Lab (Armstrong)  SOFC Research 2:30 - 2:55 PM
Break 2:55 - 3:20 PM
Georgia Tech (Liu)          Proton Cond. Research 3:20 - 3:45 PM
Cal Tech (Haile)            Proton Cond. Research 3:45 - 4:10 PM
Jet Propulsion Lab          Direct MeOH. Research 4:10 - 4:35 PM
Proton Energy (Regen FC)    PEMFC 4:35 - 5:00 PM

DINNER SPEAKER David Rohy CA Energy Commission

Ballard Stationary             PEM 8:00 - 8:25 AM
H-Power Stationary             PEM 8:25 - 8:50 AM
Analytical Power Stationary    PEM 8:50 - 9:15 AM
Plug. Power (Ernst) Stationary PEM 9:15 - 9:40 AM
BREAK      9:40 -10:05 AM
3M                          Membrane Tech. 10:05 - 10:30 AM
DuPont                      Membrane Tech. 10:30 - 10:55 AM
F-M                         Membrane Tech. 10:55 - 11:20 AM
Gore                        Membrane Tech. 11:20 - 11:45 AM
LUNCH        11:45 - 1:15 PM
Ballard Automotive               PEM 1:15 - 1:40 PM
ONSI Automotive                  PEM 1:40 - 2:05 PM
Plug. Power (Ernst) Automotive   PEM 2:05 - 2:30 PM
AlliedSignal Automotive          PEM 2:30 - 2:55 PM
BREAK                   2:55 - 3:20 PM
ElectroChem                      PEM Research 3:20 - 3:45 PM

Discussion/Comments  3:45 - 4:30


Subject: UFTO Note - Next Meeting 5/12-DOE Reliability Task Force
Date: Thu, 23 Apr 1998

DOE Secretary of Energy Advisory Board
Notice of Open Meeting
Electric System Reliability Task Force

Tuesday, May 12, 1998,  8:30 AM - 4:00 PM.
The Madison Hotel, Dolley Madison Ballroom, 15th and M Street NW,
Washington, D.C. 20005

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Richard C. Burrow, Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (AB-1), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20585, (202) 586-1709 or (202) 586-6279 (fax).

 Information on the Electric System Reliability Task Force and the Task Force's interim report may be found at the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board's web site,

    The electric power industry is in the midst of a complex transition to competition, which will induce many far-reaching changes in the structure of the industry and the institutions which regulate it.  This transition raises many reliability issues, as new entities emerge in the power markets and as generation becomes less integrated with transmission.
Purpose of the Task Force
The purpose of the Electric System Reliability Task Force is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board regarding the critical institutional, technical, and policy issues that need to be addressed in order to maintain the reliability of the nation's bulk electric system in the context of a more competitive industry.

Tentative Agenda   Tuesday, May 12, 1998
8:30AM     Opening Remarks & Objectives -- Philip Sharp, ESR Task Force
8:45AM     Working Session: Discussion of Draft Position Paper on Technical
Issues in Transmission Reliability -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
10:00AM     Working Session: Discussion of International Lessons Learned --
Facilitated by Matthew Holden
10:30AM     Break
10:45AM   Working Session: Discussion of a Draft Position Paper on
State/Regional Reliability Issues -- Facilitated by Ralph Cavanagh
11:45PM     Working Session: Planning for the Final Report -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
12:00PM   Lunch
1:00PM     Working Session:  Discussion of a Draft Position Paper on
Incentives for  Transmission Enhancement -- Facilitated by Susan Tierney
2:15PM     Working Session:  Discussion of Draft Position Paper on Ancillary
Services and Bulk-Power Reliability -- Facilitated by Philip Sharp
3:30   Public Comment Period
4:00 PM   Adjourn
   This tentative agenda is subject to change.   The final agenda will be
available at the meeting.


Subject: UFTO Forward: FINAL CADER Report Available
Date: Fri, 17 Apr 1998 15:39:25 -0800

 Forwarding note just received a few minutes ago.

Subject: FINAL CADER Report Available
   Date: Fri, 17 Apr 1998 15:05:04 -0700
   From: ERIC WONG <EWONG@energy.state.ca.us>
     To: edbeards@ufto.com

FINAL CADER REPORT Now Available!  High Quality, perfect bound edition. The 400 page report, a documentation of  the work of the California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources (CADER) and a compilation of the papers presented at the September 1997 CADER Conference is available.  Please send a $10 check or money order (per copy) along with your return address to CADER, 770 L Street, Suite 810, Sacramento, CA, 95814.   Make the check or money order out to CADER.  Charge Card numbers will not be accepted.  Upon receipt of payment, your report will be mailed via first class.   Orders are being handled by Vanessa; she can be reached at 916-329-9180.  The Energy Commission is not handling any orders.

Active members of CADER, that is those who served on committees, and the co-chairs, will receive one copy free.  These will be mailed during the week of April 20.


Here's a portion of an UFTO note from July 15, 1997:

** CADER - California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources

CADER is an alliance of public and private organizations formed in 1996 to identify and develop specific solutions to the deployment of Distributed Resources.  Initially set up with the help of the California Energy Commission, it is a self-managed organization.

Mission Statement: A consortium of manufacturers, users, energy service companies, engineering firms, utilities, power providers, research organizations, regulators, financial institutions, and others committed to facilitating the successful entry of clean, energy efficient Distributed Resources into a competitive electricity energy market.

      CADER CONFERENCE SEPT 15-17, 1997, San Diego CA

CADER will host a three day conference to explore economically and environmentally viable alternatives to grid-based power systems. Key energy industry experts from across the country will assemble at this first-of-its-kind meeting to debate how distributed resources figure into the rapidly changing electricity marketplace.

The conference, entitled "Distributed Resources: Addressing the Challenges", will take place September 15 through 17, 1997 at the Catamaran Resort Hotel, 3999 Mission Blvd., San Diego, California 92109. Hotel reservations are available by calling the hotel directly at 619-488-1081 or 800-288-0770.

The San Diego conference will highlight the latest technology developments such as photovoltaic solar systems, fuel cells, storage technologies such as flywheels and batteries, and advanced gas turbines.  In addition to site visits and technical sessions, conference participants will discuss an array of environmental, regulatory and market-related issues.

Speakers invited to the CADER Conference include: Governor Pete Wilson; Congressman Dan Schaefer; California Senator Steve Peace; Amory Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute; Federico F. Pena, Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy; and David Freeman, Trustee, ISO/PX.

Conference technical sessions will focus on the following areas:

      Energy policy
      Incentives and market rules
      Legal, institutional and regulatory issues
      Siting and environmental regulatory streamlining
      Land use planning and computer tools
      Manufacturer/technology issues

The conference builds on the success of CADER's pioneering efforts to ensure the economic competitiveness of Distributed Resources and will focus on how distributed generation systems can provide local distribution utilities, end-users, independent power providers and energy service providers with another generation choice, improved power quality and more reliable service.

Contact Connie Bruins, California Energy Commission
       (916) 654-4545      cbruins@energy.state.ca.us

Complete details and extensive documentation, and details about the conference, are available on the website



Subject: UFTO Note - Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations
Date: Fri, 17 Apr 1998

(from DOE-EREN website  "What's New April 3 1998")
Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations

In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) and the Electric Power Research Institute began preparing a document characterizing the current status and projected performance and cost improvements of several emerging renewable energy technologies. This detailed document was recently completed and can now be downloaded as a collection of files on the OUT Web site organized under the following major headings: Biomass, Geothermal, Photovoltaic (PV) Technologies, Solar Thermal Technologies, Wind Technologies, Project Financial Evaluation, and Energy Storage Technologies.  (DOE  April 3, 1998)


 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies

Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations

A joint project of the Office of Utility Technologies, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute

The Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describe the technical and economic status of the major emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply. These technology characterizations represent the best estimates of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) regarding the future performance and cost improvements expected for these technologies as a result of continuing research and development (R&D) and development of markets for renewable energy through the year 2030.

These technology characterizations, which have existed as working drafts primarily for internal use at DOE, were originated in 1989 to support analyses in the development of the first National Energy Strategy. Because of growing interest in renewable energy technologies, an increasing number of researchers and energy policy analysts have expressed interest in having access to these technology characterizations. In response to requests to make these data more widely available, the current updates can now be downloaded from this Web site and are also available in paper form (EPRI Topical Report No. TR-109496, December 1997).

Copying and Distribution
The Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations are copyrighted, but permission is granted for unlimited copying for noncommercial use.

Ordering Information for Paper Version
The paper version of the report is available from EPRI, at $50.00/copy for domestic U.S. customers. Requests for paper copies of this report, as well as pricing for non-U.S. customers, should be directed to: EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, P.O. Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523; (510) 934-4212.

Technology Characterizations

The technology characterizations can be downloaded by selecting the PDF files below. (You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 to view these files error free.) Learn about PDFs.

Front Matter (PDF 98KB)
  Title page
    Disclaimer and Copyright Notice
    Report Summary and Abstract
    Contents, Figures, and Tables

Introduction and Overview (PDF 279KB)

  Overview of Biomass Technologies (PDF 38KB)
    Gasification-Based Biomass (PDF 337KB)
    Direct-Fired Biomass (PDF 84KB)
    Biomass Co-Firing (PDF 229KB)

  Overview of Geothermal Technologies (PDF 64KB)
    Geothermal Hydrothermal (PDF 178KB)
    Geothermal Hot Dry Rock (PDF 179KB)

Photovoltaic (PV) Technologies
  Overview of PV Technologies (PDF 368KB)
    Residential PV (PDF 808KB)
    Utility-Scale Flat-Plate Thin Film PV (PDF 349KB)
    Utility-Scale PV Concentrators (PDF 119KB)

Solar Thermal Technologies
  Overview of Solar Thermal Technologies (PDF 304KB)
    Solar Power Tower (PDF 311KB)
    Solar Parabolic Trough (PDF 380KB)
    Solar Dish Engine (PDF 910KB)

Wind Technologies
  Overview of Wind Technologies (PDF 227KB)
    Advanced Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines in Wind Farms (PDF 353KB)

Project Financial Evaluation (PDF 343KB)
  Introduction to Figures of Merit
    Financial Structures
    Techniques for Calculating Levelized COE
    Financial Model and Results
    Payback Period

Appendix: Energy Storage Technologies
  Overview of Energy Storage Technologies (PDF 36KB)
    Battery Storage for Renewable Energy Systems (PDF 112KB)




Subject: UFTO Note - National Combustor Code (NCC)--new software from NASA
Date: Wed, 15 Apr 1998

National Combustor Code (NCC)--new software from NASA

Based on contacts made during the UFTO visit last year to NASA Lewis, we received an early notice about this soon-to-be announced Technology Opportunity.  NASA has developed a major new combustion modeling code, and is looking for new areas that it can be applied.  Private companies can submit problems. Terms and scope of an agreement would then be negotiated, giving the company a one year head start in evaluating the merits of seeking a commercial license.

(I have a full color acrobat pdf file of the notice that I can send you on request.)

April 15, 1998


It was a pleasure speaking with you today and thank you for agreeing to send your utility clients a copy of the attached NASA Technology Opportunity sheet which describes the National Combustion Code (NCC).

Please have interested clients contact me prior to contacting Nan-Suey Liu (NASA Lewis Combustion Branch ph: 216-433-8722).  Nan-Suey is the NASA Lewis contact who will discuss technical features of the NCC with interested parties.

Please give me a call if you have any questions and thank you for your cooperation!

Dan DeMiglio
Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center
(Div of Battelle Memorial Institute)
NASA Midwest Regional Technology Transfer Center
  440-734-1209      demiglio@battelle.org

---- text of the notice ---------------------------------
Technology Opportunity          National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Lewis Research Center Turbomachinery TOP3-00093

A new software program - the National Combustor Code (NCC) - has been developed for aerospace and non-aerospace engineers and designers to enhance their understanding of physical and chemical processes which occur during continuous combustion. The NCC provides insight - for the first time - to the entire combustion process using a versatile and comprehensive set of tools. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to transfer this multidisciplinary combustor design system to U.S. companies for advanced liquid and gaseous continuous combustion applications. The NCC utilizes computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, and powerful tools for post and parallel processing. The National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

Potential Commercial Uses

• Evaluate the performance of current liquid and gas combustion systems leading to product improvement.

• Optimize the design of future liquid and gas combustion systems leading to increased performance and reliability.

• Examples of relevant liquid and gas combustion systems are:
  - Aviation gas turbine engines
  - Industrial/ground power gas turbines
  - Industrial combustion devices involving continuous burning of   liquids and gaseous fuels
  - Hazardous waste incinerators
  - Steel treating furnaces
  - Domestic gas fired appliances


• Product improvement for current combustion devices with respect to efficiency and durability
• Reduced time and costs for the design cycle of future combustion devices
• Optimized performance and reliability for future combustion devices

The Technology

The development of the National Combustion Code was pursued under a NASA/Department of Defense/ Department of Energy/U.S. industry partner-ship. Recent efforts have been focused on developing a computational combustion dynamics capability that meets combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time, incorporating both short?term and long?term technology goals. As a first step, a baseline solver for turbulent combustion flows was developed under a joint modeling and code development effort between the Aero-Industry and the NASA Lewis Research Center. This baseline solver is a Navier?Stokes flow solver based on an explicit four-stage Runge? Kutta scheme that uses unstructured meshes and runs on networked workstations. The solver can be linked to any computer-aided design system via the Patran file system. Turbulence closure is obtained via the standard k?e model with a high Reynolds number wall function. The following combustion models have been implemented into the code: finite? rate reduced kinetics for Jet?A and methane fuels, turbulence?chemistry interactions via an assumed probability density function for temperature fluctuations, and thermal emissions of nitrogen ox-ides. The solver can switch between a parallel virtual machine (PVM) interface and a message-passing interface (MPI) by using compiler flags. Its parallel performance on several platforms has been analyzed, and on the basis of the results, several improvements have been made. To date, the baseline solver has been used in the following applications: simulation of swirling flow experiments, computation of a generic swirling flow can combustor, computation of a multi-shear low NOx fuel nozzle and calculation of a multi-walled production fuel nozzle, and calculation of a flame holder/Cyclone 1-cup sector.

Options for Commercialization

The executables of the National Combustor Code, Beta Version 2.0, and the corresponding nonproprietary source code will be available for release to the non-aerospace industry by summer 1999. Beginning in the summer of 1998, NASA would be willing to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the NCC by applying it to a wide range of areas where it would be helpful to have accurate predictions of the combustor process.


Gynelle Steele, Technology Utilization Engineer
NASA Lewis Commercial Technology Office
NASA Lewis Research Center
Cleveland, OH 44135
Phone: (216) 433-8258       FAX: (216) 433-5012        Gsteele@lerc.nasa.gov

Dan DeMiglio, Client Services
Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center
Phone: (440) 734-1209        (440) 734-0686     demiglio@battelle.org


UFTO Note - EMF Engineering Review Symposium, April 28-29, 1998
Date: Wed, 01 Apr 1998 19:06:03 -0800

Reporting briefly from ORNL--a heads up about this upcoming conference on EMF.

The RAPID program is drawing to a close, but more critically, DOE may not continue with its own core EMF program.  This conference may be an important forum for that issue to be raised.  One implication-a void in the U.S. when and if standards are set internationally!

An excellent contact on EMF issues overall is Paul Gailey at Oak Ridge.
     423-574-0419   pg7@ornl.gov


(Note this website as a resource on emf generally)


                      EMF Engineering Review Symposium

               Status and Summary of EMF Engineering Research

                              April 28-29, 1998
                          Sheraton Charleston Hotel
                               Charleston, SC

            Organized by the United States Department of Energy

                      Last updated: February 11, 1998


The Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMFRAPID) Program was established by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) are partners in the EMFRAPID Program's effort to address the question of whether extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electric energy pose a risk to human health, and if so, to determine the significance of the risk and to develop mitigation technologies.


Engineering results provide one of the foundations for understanding and characterizing EMF exposures in biological and epidemiological studies. DOE is convening a public symposium to assess the state of knowledge of EMF engineering issues and to present results of RAPID engineering studies conducted by DOE. These studies focus on exposure characterization and methodologies, exposure levels, and evaluation of strategies for field reduction.

Symposium presentations will address current knowledge of EMF exposure parameters, measurement technology, exposure systems, quality assurance, modeling, and exposure distribution. Participants will evaluate these results and discuss the potential social and economic implications. DOE will document the evaluations and conclusions of participants, together with summaries of each RAPID engineering study. Findings will be integrated into the risk evaluation process, which NIEHS is conducting.

Details and updates on the EMF Engineering Review Symposium will appear on this webpage.


                      EMF Engineering Review Symposium

                            Status and Summary of
                          EMF Engineering Research

                              April 28-29, 1998
                          Sheraton Charleston Hotel
                               Charleston, SC


  1. To assess the state of knowledge of EMF engineering issues, and
  2. to provide engineering input to the RAPID risk evaluation process.


The symposium will allow all participants to attend all discussions (there will be no break-out groups). Both on-site discussions and written comments will be incorporated into the report. Proposed topics are listed below.

   * Field Parameters
   * Measurement Technologies
   * Laboratory Exposure Systems
   * Field Calculation Models
   * Field Management
   * Interaction with Biological Systems
   * Exposure Assessment Methodologies
   * Engineering Quality Assurance for EMF Studies
   * Exposure Distribution Across Populations
   * Implications of Imposing Field Limits


Investigators and users of EMF source characterization, exposure assessment,
laboratory exposure systems, field management techniques, and field modeling
are invited to attend and participate in the discussions. This symposium
will be of interest to researchers in engineering, biological sciences, and
epidemiology, as well as electric utility personnel and regulators. The
meeting is open to the public.


A block of rooms is being held through March 27, 1998 at the Sheraton
Charleston Hotel, 170 Lockwood Drive, Charleston, SC 29403, at the
government per diem rate ($89.00 plus 12% tax). For reservations, call
800-968-3569, or fax 803-723-6276. Be sure to state that you are attending
the DOE Engineering Symposium.

Travel Information

The Charleston International Airport services this area. Low Country
Limousine Service offers transportation to and from the airport. The one-way
fare is $15.00 per person. For reservations, call 800-222-4771. Taxis are
available at a slightly higher cost.


Advance registration is required in order to receive pre-conference
materials. The deadline for registration is March 27, 1998. To register,
please send the following information for each attendee:

   * Name
   * Name for badge
   * Title/Position
   * Company/Institution
   * Address
   * City/State/Zip
   * Country
   * E-mail address
   * Telephone number
   * Fax number


W/L Associates
7519 Ridge Road
Frederick, MD 21702
Telephone: 301-663-1915
Fax: 301-371-8955
e-mail: 75230.1222@compuserve.com


UFTO Note- Environ Capital Forum NYC
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 1998

Press Release
March 31, 1998
Contact: Loch McCabe, Keith Raab
For immediate release
Environmental Capital Network
(313) 996-8387;  (313) 996-8732 fax;  ecn@bizserve.com


On June 3, 1998, the EAST COAST ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL FORUM will be held in New York City.  The East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will capitalize on growing investor interest in industrial process, energy and other environmental technologies.  The East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will introduce investors to selected companies commercializing technologies, products or services that enhance both productivity and environmental quality.

 "Our  Forums are  a terrific opportunity for investors to meet selected companies and to network with other investors focused on the environmental and energy  industries," says Loch McCabe, Director of the Environmental Capital Network (ECN).  Nearly sixty (60) individual, professional, institutional, and corporate investors or their representatives attended the Environmental Capital Network's West Coast Environmental Capital Forum, held in San Francisco on January 30, 1998.

The companies that will present at the East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will be determined by a Business Selection Committee composed of investors familiar with the environmental and energy industries.  The Committee includes:  Ethan Stambler (Advent International Corporation), Nancy Floyd (Nth Power Technologies), Jud Hill (HSBC Securities), Stephen Lynch (R.S. Lynch & Company), William Osborne (Venture Investment Management Company), Ann Partlow (Rockefeller & Company), Robert Shaw (Arete Corporation), and John Quirk (Quirk Carson Peppet).

"Investors and companies want to use their time well, " reports Ira Rubenstein, Executive Director of the Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc.  "Investors want top quality deals.  Companies want exposure to investors who understand their business.  This environmental capital forum creates value for both investors and companies."

Interested individual, professional, institutional and corporate investors should contact the Environmental Capital Network at 313-997-8387 or ecn@bizserve.com for registration information.  Space is limited and advanced registration is strongly suggested.

The Environmental Capital Network (Ann Arbor, MI) and the Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc. (Troy, NY) are organizing the Forum.   The Environmental Capital Network (ECN) is a service that introduces investors to emerging and expanding environmental technology companies raising capital.  ECN is a program of the Center for Environmental Policy, Economics and Science, a not-for-profit corporation.  The Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc. is a trade association that provides networking and educational resources to the environmental industry.



UFTO Note -Nortel Digital Powerline venture
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 1998 06:13:00 -0800


The story is picking up speed.  (See UFTO Note March 6 for the last installment.)  Nortel and United Utilities have formed a joint venture to pursue the Digital PowerLine Technology worldwide.  Part of the Nortel group in Atlanta will form the nucleus for the joint venture's North American effort.

As last week's press release explains, 10 major utilities around the world are already committed to deploy DPL.  The situation in North America is less far along, due to the technical issues that need to be resolved, however the forming of the joint venture will certainly accelerate the momentum.

Considerably more technical information is now available on the new website at:

As explained in the March 6 UFTO Note, two unnamed US utilities are already providing system data, as Nortel continues to work on the details on their business case for N. America.  Many utilities have contacted Nortel and indicated a readiness to get involved immediately.  The company is keeping a list, but will go slow until it feels it has enough information to proceed.

If your utility hasn't contacted them yet, it might be wise to get on the list, if not pursue it a bit more aggressively.

The contact is:    Barbara Warren, Senior Manager, Digital PowerLine Marketing
              770-708-5117, bswarren@nortel.com

Here's the text of the latest press release:

Nortel: Joint Venture Formed to Market Digital PowerLine Technology Worldwide; Initial Agreements Reached -- Serving More Than 35 Million Homes

March 26, 1998

 LONDON, March 25 /PRNewswire/ via NewsEdge Corporation -- Nortel (Northern Telecom) and United Utilities PLC today announced the formation of a joint venture company, NOR.WEB DPL, to develop and market Digital PowerLine solutions on a worldwide basis.

Digital PowerLine, which was developed jointly by Nortel and Norweb Communications, part of United Utilities PLC, enables data communications, including Internet traffic, to be transmitted over electrical power distribution networks at speeds of more than one Megabit per second-up to 10 times faster than ISDN, currently the fastest speed generally available.

Nortel and United Utilities will each take a 50 percent stake in the joint venture, which will develop and market Digital PowerLine equipment, software and services. John Beckitt of United Utilities will serve as chairman and Steve Pusey of Nortel has been named chief executive officer.

In conjunction with the formation of the joint venture, NOR.WEB is also announcing that to date, 10 international utilities have signed agreements declaring their commitment in proceeding with initial market deployment of the Digital PowerLine technology.

The potential market for Digital PowerLine through these agreements is more than 35 million homes in seven European and Asian countries.

"We believe that the roll-out of Digital PowerLine will enable the mass deployment of high-speed data access and applications on an unprecedented scale in these markets," said Steve Pusey, chief executive officer of NOR.WEB. "This first wave of customer agreements demonstrates the scale of global interest in Digital PowerLine."

"NOR.WEB takes the collaboration between Nortel and Norweb Communications on Digital PowerLine to a new level of commercial activity," said John Beckitt, chairman of NOR.WEB. "NOR.WEB power utility customers will find that Digital PowerLine provides a low-risk, high-return investment that can be implemented step by step in line with demand."

A new version of the Digital PowerLine technology (DPL 1000) was launched on March 18, 1998 at the CeBIT '98 exhibition in Hannover, Germany. Applications over DPL 1000 are planned to support bundled information and energy services. Examples include high-speed Internet access, multimedia, smart applications/remote control, home automation and security, on-line banking/shopping, data back-up, telecommuting, entertainment, and planned IP telephony.

The new Digital PowerLine solution consists of a network interface at the substation, a data unit on the side of the subscriber's house, and a stand-alone PowerLine communications module. In addition, a complete software and management capability adds functionality and flexibility to the system. The total package provides a competitively positioned access network which integrates seamlessly into today's WAN networks.

Today, NOR.WEB is announcing agreements with the following seven companies: Norweb Communications of the UK, Vattenfall and Sydkraft of Sweden, RWE and EnBW of Germany, Singapore Power, and EDON of the Netherlands.

NOR.WEB will utilize Nortel, and its associated joint ventures, as one of its primary, worldwide channels-to-market-leveraging Nortel's extensive capabilities to integrate total network solutions.

Norweb Communications provides an extensive range of advanced voice and data services and has achieved significant success in providing resilient networks for businesses throughout the north west of the UK. The company plans to use power line technology to provide public access networks for residential customers in the region. United Utilities has a combined capability in water and waste water, electricity, gas and telecoms, employing 10,000 people worldwide with revenues of pnds. stlg. 2.4 billion in 1997. This new technology will strengthen its competitiveness as a multi-utility service provider.

Nortel works with customers in more than 150 countries to design, build and integrate their communications products and advanced digital networks. Customers include public and private institutions; Internet service providers; local, long-distance, cellular mobile and PCS communications companies; cable television companies; and utilities.
Nortel had 1997 revenues of $US15.5 billion and has approximately 73,000 employees worldwide.

SOURCE Northern Telecom Limited
/CONTACT: Frank McNally, 703-712-8374 or frank.mcnally@nortel.com, or Michelle Murray, 770-708-4434 or michelle_murray@nortel.com, both of Nortel/ /Company News On-Call: http://www.prnewswire.com or fax, 800-758-5804, ext. 122158/ /Web site: http://www.nortel.com/powerline/ (NTL. NT)


UFTO Note - MC Power Seeking Partners
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 1998 14:16:30 -0800
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>
To: uftolist@ufto.com
CC: lee_camara_mcpower@compuserve.com


MC Power Seeking Strategic Partners

MC Power is quietly looking for strategic business partners to participate directly with them in the commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells.  MC Power plans to concentrate on building the fuel cell stack based on their proprietary technology, and have others do balance of plant fabrication and system assembly, and marketing, sales, distribution, and service.  They're also looking for preferred equipment and materials supplier arrangements.

The company has a detailed business plan which involves several stages leading up to operation of a number of commercial prototype generators in 2000 and 2001, and manufacturing capability for delivery on commercial orders in 2002.  They believe that their extensive intellectual property (patents and know-how) puts them in a good position to provide electricity at a levelized cost of 5.5-7 cents/kwh, below the forecast average price paid by commercial users; with superior environmental performance; and with advantages for the restructured marketplace (small scale and cogeneration).

There are many attractive market segments:  utilization of waste gases from industrial processes, landfill and water treatment plants; commercial and light industrial users, distributed generation on networks; and international markets.

MC Power is currently owned 51% by IGT, and 24.5% each by Bechtel and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries.  Notably, the company will offer ownership positions, and the opportunity to invest at pre-IPO valuations.

A number of utilities, including one or two UFTO members, are already members of the Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology, who will be notified of these developments.  The company has a confidential "Partnering Opportunity" memorandum which presents a broad summary of the plan described here.

Contact:  Lee Camara, President
630-986-8040  x151,    fax 630-986-8072,     lee_camara_mcpower@compuserve.com


UFTO Note - Sandia: Critical Infrastructure
Date: Thu, 26 Mar 1998


Energy and Critical Infrastructures
   (Notes from UFTO visit to Sandia 12/97.)

    Sam Varnado, Director
    Energy and Critical Infrastructure Technology Center
     505-845-9555,  sgvarna@sandia.gov

Sandia is at the forefront of the big wave of attention currently being paid to "critical infrastructure surety" as it impacts national security.  (Surety means "assurance", and encompasses safety, integrity, authenticity, security, reliability, and technology.) Coming at the issue from a long background in systems analysis in the nuclear energy and weapons programs, they've emerged as a major player.  Their experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is seen as directly translatable to infrastructure systems analysis.  Since it is impractical to define threats, the approach is "consequence based", as a means to determine why and where protections are required.  It begins by identifying consequences that must be avoided, and then finds the system failure modes that could lead to them.

Sandia supported the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), which has an extensive website (http://www.ppcip.gov) featuring the complete text of their major report issued in October 1997.  An Interim Group is continuing the Commission's work.  Also, the National Security Council is heading another interagency group that is drafting a Presidential Decision Directive to assign responsibility for the different infrastructures to the different agencies (due to be released soon).

The PCCIP report identifies the electric power grid as one of the most critical infrastructure sectors, notably in terms of the high degree of interdependence and interconnectedness of power with all the other sectors: telecommunications, finance and banking, oil and gas distribution, transportation, and vital human services (e.g. banking depends on information systems which depend on power).  The power grid is very susceptible to physical and cyber threats, the latter especially in light of the increasing role of computers in the hardware, markets and financial dealings of the industry.

There is also a high degree of concern over the uncertain implications of utility industry restructuring.  The transition from regulated rate based monopolies to competitive energy markets will most certainly impact reliability of service and vulnerability to disruption.  Existing reliability models are not capable of accurately reflecting the issues that will arise.

Safety and Reliability of Nuclear Systems

    Nestor Ortiz, Director, Nuclear Energy Technology Center,
    505-844-0955, nrortiz@sandia.gov

For the DOE Nuclear Energy Program, there is research in Plant Lifetime Improvement, Aging of Reactor Components, and Instrumentation and Control Upgrade.

Sandia developed and maintains several noteworthy PRA codes. To mention some of them:
- MELCOR is used internationally and by the NRC.  Modeling fully integrated engineering systems, it simulates the propagation  accident to consequences.  (U.S. utilities use MAP).
- CONTAIN is a research and design certification tool for containment systems
- RADTRAD design basis dose calculations for NUREG 1475.  Revised baselines may eliminate the need for some equipment and maintenance procedures.

• Loss of Off Site Power (LOSP)
Of particular note, Loss of Off Site Power (LOSP) studies have led to major concerns over the potential impact of restructuring.  In the PRA safety analysis of a nuclear power plant, the probability of loss of offsite power (i.e. power on the grid) is a very important factor.  Plant safety systems are stressed by LOSP events, contributing over time to increased probabilities of malfunctions (e.g. resulting in higher probabilities of a loss of coolant accident).

While grid reliability has generally been excellent ( <1 LOSP in 10 years), there is new interest due to the '96 western states blackouts, acts of sabotage and vandalism, cyberthreats, and the impact of deregulation.

In a preliminary analysis, experts at Texas A&M ran their N-Area Reliability Program (NARP) on the ERCOT (Texas) grid, with scenarios developed by Sandia to reflect possible changes under deregulation in ownership and operation of power plants on the system.  Assumptions were that uneconomic units would be shut down and that marginal units would be on standby, with insufficient transmission capacity to make up the difference.

The results were startling.  With generation shortages at transmission choke points, Loss of Load Expected (LOLE) increased many times the current norm of 1 event day/year.  (It is not uncommon in reliability analysis to find a "cliff", where small differences in conditions can have drastic consequences.)

While recognizing the preliminary nature of these findings and the need for much more detailed and comprehensive analysis, the magnitude of the numbers got people's attention, and a more intensive program is underway, and the early results are being looked at again.

At the same time, Sandia has extensive experience and has developed a Generic Network Reliability Analysis Toolset, which is extremely effective for analysis telecomm networks.  However, preliminary efforts to investigate the applicability of this model indicate that it is not immediately extensible to networks with direction and capacity constraints inherent in bulk power grids.

  Contact Dennis Berry, 505-844-0234, dlberry@sandia.gov

Electricity Interdependencies - Estimating Economic Risks

Sandia has surveyed existing economic risk models to see if they can be usefully applied to estimate impacts of electric power disruptions.
  - Lifeline LLEQE -- effects of earthquake, for insurance
  - FEMA - consequence assessment tool
  - Electric Sector -- 44 different models
  - NDAC - telecom

They chose ENERGY 2020, the most recent incarnation of the Dartmouth ("Club of Rome" and FOSSIL 89) systems dynamic modeling approach, which has been used by EPA to analyze effects of green house gases on the electric system.  It is "agent-based" and adaptable, and is available for free.

It feeds into REMI, a commercial (expensive!) dynamic regional macro-economic model.  In preliminary runs with the Texas grid study results, it showed clearly that regions could experience permanent loss of jobs and increased costs.  Future work will include use of Sandia's own ASPEN model, an agent-based simulation of the US economy.

   Contact Diane Marozas, 505-844-5504, dcmaroz@sandia.gov

Impacts of Storage on National Grid Reliability

Storage on the power grid can be seen in several different lights: 1. as a source of peak supply; 2. as a load and demand-side management option, and 3. as a means to render renewable generation more reliable from a systems operation perspective.  Sandia has just completed an initial scoping study relating the 3rd option, to develop recommendations for how modeling methodologies need to be enhanced in order to address the question.  In particular, the NEMS model could be used for such analyses with some modifications.  (NEMS is DOE/EIA's general equilibrium model of the national energy system.  It's Electricity Market Module doesn't currently have the capability to model storage on the national grid.)

"Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in the National Energy Modeling System",
       SAND97-2926, Dec 1997

Contact Paul Butler, 505-844-7874,  pcbutle@sandia.gov

Vital Issues Panel

Sandia uses its own "Vital Issues Panel" methodology to identify strategic issues in areas of national importance, particularly where there is a potential for Sandia to make contributions from its technological capabilities.  Topics have included Global Climate, Environmental Security (i.e. the environment as a national security issue (e.g. effluents used aggressively, destabilization potential in Eastern Europe, terrorist targets, etc.)  Infrastructure has been examined in two case studies, Critical Issues and Vulnerabilities in the Electric Sector, and separately, Vulnerabilities of the North American Power Grid.

Critical Issues and Vulnerabilities in the Electric Sector

To study vulnerabilities associated with the Electric Sector, Sandia convened a panel of experts representing the electric utility sector(April 1997).  The group and identified critical issues and discussed how technology can help address those issues.  They determined the top eight most critical issues arising from industry restructuring.  In priority order, they are:

- Management and ownership of data streams
- The importance of consumer choice
- Competitive market pricing systems that will determine the mix of options
- Environmental issues
- State/federal role in collaborative and strategic research
- Integration of the national electric grid
- Incentives for keeping distribution systems up to date
- Accelerated retirement of a significant amount of generating capacity.

The panel also discussed the past, present and future of utility R&D, and ranked federal and private R&D spending priorities:
-- Federal:  Integration of the national grid and environmental issues
-- Private: Importance of consumer choice, management and ownership of data streams, and environmental issues.

A concern remains whether the utility participants were sufficiently representative of the industry, and whether they - or the industry -  appropriately estimate the importance of broader security issues, as compared with individual business concerns (e.g. with data ownership and dividing of system responsibilities).  The Sandia team is anxious to have greater involvement from the industry in these efforts.

The discussions are summarized in the report:  SAND97-1659, August 1997
         Contact Arnie Baker,  505-284-4462,  abbaker@sandia.gov

North American Power Grid (NAPG)

In April and June 1997, panels attended by stakeholders from government, industry and academe discussed vulnerabilities associated with the NAPG.  The first panel was tasked to develop a mission statement and to define criteria by which risks and threats could be identified and prioritized.  The second panel  identified and defined categories of risk to the NAPG and assessed their relative importance, based on the groundwork laid by the first group.

The overall results:

--Criteria:  Likelihood, Consequence, Timeframe, Cost/Benefit

--Risks:  In rank order of importance
   - Unrecognized risks embedded in new technologies and operating structures
   - "Tragedy of the Commons" *
   - Physical Threats and non-natural disaster
   - Shorter time horizons driven by cost reduction
   - Reliability and liability implications of reregulation
   - Cyber threats

*"Tragedy of the Commons" (a term originated by Garrett Hardin his classic 1968 article in Science Magazine), is the idea that no single actor has enough concern for the whole system, but each has the ability and self-interest to overtax available resources.  In the context of the power grid, obligation to serve and cooperation are being replaced by competition and opportunism.

A partial outline of the results are available at:   http://www.iGAiA.sandia.gov
It hasn't been decided yet whether the report will be released outside Sandia, in view of proprietary information it contains.

Center for System Reliability

   Contact Robert Cranwell, 505-844-8368, rmcranw@sandia.gov

Sandia technologies and expertise:
Modeling, simulation, optimization, maintenance strategies, network reliability/vulnerability, risk management, sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, human factors/human reliability, life-cycle cost analysis, software reliability, prob. risk assessment.

Applied to:
Power Generation, telecommunications, transportation, health care, equipment

Sandia has done analyses for many large corporations, e.g., design for reliability; predict and optimize impact of upgrades; optimization of spares inventory, etc.

Reliability Analysis Software Packages
Reliability enters into every phase of a product life cycle, from concept to design to production and operation to phase-out.  Sandia has developed computer models to support the entire reliability engineering cycle.

WinR  --Over 100 copies sold, available on a commercial basis from Sandia (they're looking for a vendor).  PC based reliability modeling and analysis provides a "dashboard" showing status of system components and performance.

Arramis - PRA for larger systems

WinR-PdM -- Predictive Maintenance -- combine real time sensor data with WinR for a dynamic view of component aging and overall system reliability.  Demo at Allied Signal on a flexible manufacturing system

CRAX -- The CassandRA eXoskeleton (CRAX) is a new reliability analysis tool that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support the Materials Aging and Reliability Program (another key capability at Sandia is the detailed understanding of the physics of aging phenomena--fatigue, fracture, corrosions, etc., which have myriad and complex implications for systems reliability).

There are three major elements to CRAX:

    Analysis Engine (Cassandra)
    User Interface (Tcl/Tk GUI)
    Physical Model (User Supplied)

 The Cassandra uncertainty analysis engine consists of a number of software routines which permit the user to select a variety of methods for including uncertainty in their analyses. Cassandra is CORBA compliant and platform independent permitting easy interface with many of the new engineering design and analysis software packages. Existing uncertainty analysis techniques include a variety of Monte Carlo and analytically based approaches. The specific methods are constantly being updated and improved.

In addition to the CORBA interface structure, access to the Cassandra uncertainty analysis engine is also available via a Tcl/Tkgraphical user interface. There is also an effort to permit this interface to be accessed through a WWW browser. This will greatly aid in access to the analysis software within the using community.

The final element of CRAX is the physical model. A major decision early in the development of CRAX was the decision to not include any physical modeling tools. Rather than develop a new modeling tool (e.g. finite element model or fault tree tool) it was decided to let the engineer rely on the existing tools that they were comfortable with and had confidence in. While not the ideal situation in terms of analysis speed, it was felt that for the engineers to become comfortable with incorporating uncertainty into their deterministic models, we did not want to stretch their belief system too far. Hence the reliance on existing, deterministic analysis tools and the reference to CRAX as an exoskeleton. Within CRAX is the capability to either recompile the existing software into the tool, thereby significantly increasing computational efficiency, or rely on 'hand-shaking' between the CRAX program and the existing software. TheTcl/Tk GUI handles either of these situations very easily.

 David G. Robinson;  505-844-5883,    drobin@sandia.gov

Strategic Surety & Risk Management

Contact Laura Gilliom,  505-844-9104,  lrgilli@sandia.gov

(Surety means "assurance", and encompasses safety, integrity, authenticity, security, reliability, and technology.)

(The following discussion is extremely sketchy--intended only to bring identify some of these subject areas and to highlight Sandia's involvement and expertise.)

This program addresses itself to the state-of-the-art of "surety", bringing together many of Sandia's core capabilities.  It's overarching goal is to bring risk and reliability analysis from its current statistical foundations to become a predictive capability.  "Consequences" are the starting point, as mentioned earlier, and "interdependencies" are a major theme.  The work proceeds by combining what is done at the level of engineering design codes with analyses of scenarios for risk.

Risk Management is broadly defined as a management tool that encompasses these different but closely related activities:
1. Identification of hazards associated with a technical system
2. Determination of the risks (consequences and likelihoods) of those hazards.
3. Reduction of risks to acceptable levels through appropriate design and control measures.
4. Thorough documentation of the above 3 activities.
5. Continuing reevaluation to improve the system or solution.

At Sandia, several hundred professional staff apply these activities in 8 major areas :
  - Environment and environmental restoration
  - Information systems
  - Nuclear Reactors
  - Physical Security
  - Production and Manufacturing
  - Transportation
  - Waste Management
  - Weapons

To realize benefits of overlapping interests, these staff participate in an internal organization of risk professionals at Sandia, called Sandia's International Institute for Systematic Risk Studies (SIIRS, or "scissors").

--High Integrity Software
Abstract Synthesis Transformation -- make short pieces of code that are "provably correct."
Software Event Execution Reliability (SEER) involves a math overlay to be sure that sequences occur correctly.

--Information Assurance- Cryptography
Most methods of cryptography involve the use of a key and function.  Sandia has developed a new approach to split the function, so no one person can have everything.

Sandia is the only DOE lab allowed to do R&D on cryptography, primarily for use and control of nuclear weapons.  They have a major crypto library which is widely licensed.

--Devices--safe and secure.  Doing new research to have confidence in the behavior of a system when a "chip makes a decision".

--Authentication Center of Excellence (ACE) for banking, devices and software...physical tokens of authenticity; smart cards and highly secure smart card readers--systems for the Defense Department.  (Think about SCADA systems and how susceptible they are to outside interference and control!)

--Information Warfare assessments--information and physical security.  Imagine the havoc of an all out cyber war, i.e. an attack from an enemy country or syndicate, not just hackers.

--Auctions - imagine a new player who wants to disrupt it--gray areas between gaming the system and dishonesty....not just an issue of terrorists, but of businesses vulnerable to other players.  How can bids/contracts be authenticated and when and how can they be disowned or repudiated?


UFTO Note - Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan
Date: Wed, 25 Mar 1998 21:20:45 -0800


On Wed, DOE announced the Clinton Administration's plan for the Electric
Power Industry. The Summary, complete text, and Q&A, appear on the DOE's home page
(attached) at:


Here is the press release

March 25, 1998

NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Tom Welch, 202/586-5806

Administration's Plan Will Bring Competition
  To Electricity, Savings to Consumers

 $20 Billion a Year in Savings for Consumers

The Clinton Administration today announced a proposal to bring competition and consumer choice to the electricity industry, saving consumers roughly $20 billion a year and improving the environment by reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

The Administration's Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan will provide customer choice by 2003, but will allow states to opt out of competition if they believe that their consumers would be better off under the status quo. Replacing a regulated monopoly system with competition will also encourage efficiency, bring new products and services, strengthen reliability of service and protect consumers.

"This proposal will provide incentives for increased efficiency in the electricity market, saving American consumers $20 billion a year and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Both the economy and the environment will benefit," said President William J. Clinton.

"We will bring America's electric industry into the modern era and save consumers money. A family of four will save $232 a year -- about two weeks of groceries. For the average family, this is the equivalent of getting a 5 percent income tax cut," said Secretary of Energy Federico Pe?a. "Competitive forces will also create a more efficient, leaner and cleaner industry. And the environment will benefit as reduced emissions accompany this increased efficiency."

"This comprehensive plan is the Clinton Administration's blueprint to Congress so that together we can design legislation that protects the environment, public health and the economy," said EPA Administrator Carol Browner. "In addition to bringing competition to the electricity industry, this plan will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in cost-effective ways and march in lockstep with our previous commitments to clean air."

"Sixteen states have already moved to provide for electricity industry competition. There are, however, issues that only the federal government can deal with," said Secretary Pe?a. "Federal legislation is needed to enable states to implement retail competition effectively. And only federal legislation can modify or repeal outdated federal laws, cover regional electricity markets, address concerns about market power, ensure that the interstate electricity grid is reliable, and establish uniform standards so that all Americans are receiving the same information about their utility suppliers. We want to work with Congress to get comprehensive legislation that benefits all consumers."

The Administration's Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan:

 - Provides for customer choice by January 1, 2003, but allows states to opt out of the competitive  market structure if they believe that their consumers would be better off under the status quo system or their  own unique restructuring proposal. This will give states the freedom to structure retail competition that  works best for their citizens.

 - Supports stranded cost recovery for utilities that might not otherwise be able to recover the costs of  certain past investments that are no longer economic in the low-cost competitive market. The plan encourages  states to provide for recovery of stranded costs, supporting their fundamental authority in these matters.

 - Strengthens electric service reliability by requiring that all participants in physical electric  transactions on the grid comply with mandatory standards. The plan improves reliability by building on the  industry's tradition of self-regulation and giving the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)  authority to approve and oversee a private, self regulating organization that develops and enforces mandatory  reliability standards.

 - Gives FERC authority to require transmitting utilities to turn over operational control of  transmission facilities to an independent system operator. The plan also includes a proposal to  amend federal law to encourage the development of regional transmission planning and siting groups.

 - Requires all utility companies to disclose, in a consistent format, information about the  services they offer so customers can comparison shop and know what they are buying.  Just as the Food and Drug Administration requires manufacturers to disclose nutrition information on a  cereal box, utilities will use a standard consumer label that will include information on prices, terms,  conditions, and the environmental impacts of the electric power being sold.

 - Establishes a Renewable Portfolio Standard to ensure that at least 5.5 percent of all  electricity sales include generation from renewable energy sources by 2010. This would  double the projected amount of energy from non hydroelectric renewable sources such as wind, solar and  biomass. If companies cannot generate power from their own renewable sources, they can purchase credits  from those who exceed their targets. The proposal includes a backup cost cap to limit program costs.

- Cuts pollution and greenhouse gases. When costs start to matter, there will be increased economic  incentives to cut the two-thirds of energy currently wasted in fossil fuel electricity generation. Greater power  plant efficiency saves fuel, cuts oil imports and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

- Establishes a Public Benefits Fund to provide matching funds of up to $3 billion to states for  low-income assistance, energy-efficiency programs, research and development, and renewable technologies.  These costs are currently passed on to consumers by regulated utilities in their rates. For example, many  utilities include in their rates the cost of programs that make sure the poor and elderly do not have their heat  shut off during the winter months. This funding approach will no longer work under competition because utilities will have to compete with new suppliers who do not have to pay for these costs. Many states that are  moving to competition intend to continue funding these programs through a separate distribution fee on all electricity customers. The Public Benefit Fund would encourage and support states to ensure that the current  level of funding for these programs, estimated at about $6 billion in 1996, is preserved.

- Gives EPA authority to provide interstate nitrogen oxide trading authority to assure that we  achieve NOx reductions as cost-effectively as possible and enhance air quality.

- Modernizes federal electricity law to get the right balance of competition without market abuse,  including giving FERC the authority to mitigate market power in the event that some companies begin to  acquire excessive control over retail electricity markets and repealing outdated laws like the Public Utility  Holding Company Act of 1935 and the "must buy" provision of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act.

"The electricity industry is still operating under a regulated, monopoly system -- rules, regulations and laws that were first enacted decades ago. Consumers can't choose their own suppliers and there is little incentive for companies to be cost- and energy-efficient. Why? Because a regulated monopoly supplier doesn't have to compete and essentially has a guarantee that its costs will be recovered.

"If you're the only game in town, you set the rules of the game," Pe?a said. "With competition, we're going to change this. With competition, the customer will come first."

  - DOE -


                [Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan]

      Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan on-line
           Download a copy of the Comprehensive Electricity
           Competition Plan (*PDF format)

      Summary on-line
           Download a copy of the Summary (*PDF format)

      Questions and Answers about the Plan 0n-line
           Download a copy of the Questions and Answers about
           the Plan (*PDF format)

      News Release on the Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan

                                Fact Sheets

      Benefits of Plan
      Need for Federal Action
      Retail Competition Policy - Flexible Mandate
      Stranded Cost Principle
      Consumer Information
      Strengthen Electric System Reliability
      Renewable Portfolio Standard
      Public Benefits Fund
      Air Quality
      Download a copy of all Fact Sheets (*PDF format)
      Download a copy of Fact Sheets about Impact of Plan on
      Consumers by Identified Regions (*PDF format)



UFTO Note - Elec. Cable Research-Sandia
Date: Mon, 23 Mar 1998 12:04:07 -0800

Electric Cable Life Assessment and Condition Monitoring

John Clauss, 505-844-5449, jmclaus@sandia.gov
Curt Nelson, 505-845-9253, cnelson@sandia.gov

Sandia has an extensive program to study electric cables, primarily in the context of nuclear power plant safety.  Cables are everywhere in power plants, transmitting power and information, and can be the origin of common mode failures, e.g. when many cables fail simultaneously during an accident.  Generally, cables perform well in U.S. nuclear plants, but life extension and relicensing are leading to increasing needs for techniques to guarantee cable functionality under both normal and accident conditions.

Cable Life Assessment

 - Cable Material Aging/Degradation Modeling - accelerated aging tests introduce new questions which must be taken into account, such as whether short exposure to high temperature is equivalent to long times at moderate temperature, and how to treat the combined effects of time, temperature and radiation dose rate.  Ironically, low temperature can inhibit self-healing in polymers.  A new promising technique involves measuring the oxygen consumption of the insulating material, which could permit very accurate aging measurements in a short time.

 - Lab vs Natural Aging - The Sandia Cable Repository of Aged Polymer Samples (SCRAPS) - Sandia maintains a library of thousands of samples of common cable materials that have been aged in the lab, representing over 2000 separate experimental aging environments.

Condition Monitoring Research

 - Electric NDE - a new Electric Cable Evaluation Facility (ECEF) is just going into operation, providing cable tray and conduit systems typical of power plants.  The cables have fully characterized mechanical defects, hidden for NDE systems to locate as a "blind"  test.  To keep things interesting, the size, type, distance down the cable, etc. are varied from one cable to the next.  Some cables have no defects.  Special access ports permit visual observation of the defects following a "blind" NDE test.

ECEF will be used to test claims made by various developers for new cable NDE techniques, which historically haven't faired well.  It will also serve as a test bed for the development of new methods.  Sandia has a proposal in to DOE and NRC for an evaluation of new Russian method called DIACS.

Sandia developed a new high-voltage fast pulse technique for electrical NDE  (100kV, 1 nsec risetime, 10-500 nsec pulse width  --  low total energy insertion).  It combines features of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial discharge techniques, with electrical and acoustic indications of breakdown location.  Sandia has done limited proof-of-principle testing that shows potential for use in a highly-constrained geometry.

 (** Maybe a new approach for in-situ testing of underground distribution cable?? ** )

 - Physical Monitoring - Density Technique
Preliminary research has shown a correlation between density and tensile elongation-at-break in many cable materials.  Since density measurements can be made on very small samples of material, this may be a new NDE condition monitoring technique.  For some materials, the density change occurs at a fairly constant rate. In others, the rate of density increase is slow, then reach a point at which it increases dramatically.  The opposite can also be observed, i.e. fast at first, and then slow.  Early results indicate that density measurements could represent a very useful condition monitoring technique.

"Density Measurements as a Condition Monitoring Approach .. "
   draft SAND report 1/21/98, KT Gillen, et. al.


Subject: UFTO Note - Distrib Gen Conference
    Date:  Thu, 19 Mar 1998 09:39:16 -0800

Here's the text of a brochure for an upcoming conference on Distributed Generation.
It's put on by a company that does conferences, and they seem to have done a
good job assembling the players in DG, and put together an interesting agenda.

If you're interested, I suggest you call (781) 736-0800 and ask them to fax or
mail a copy of their brochure.  They don't have a website.


--- Building Viable DistGen Systems for Improving
     Power Quality and Reducing Energy Costs

April 28-29, 1998 Back Bay Hilton, Boston MA
May 6-7 1998, Adam's Mark Hotel, Philadelphia PA

Learn Winning Strategies & Case Studies From These Industry Leaders:
Booz Allen Hamilton  --  Gas Research Institute (GRI)  --  Temple University  --  US Department of Energy  --  The E3 Company  --  National Economic Research Associates (NERA)  --  American Super Conductor Corp.  --  Global Energy Solutions  --  Commonwealth Edison Company  --  Encorp. Inc.  --  AlliedSignal Power Systems Inc.  --  Unicom Corp.  --  Distributed Utility Associates  --  Caterpillar Inc.  --  Solar Turbines Inc.  --  Zapco/Stop & Shop  --  Trigen-Cinergy Solutions  --  Simpson Paper Co.  --  EPRI  --  National Energy Choice  --  Douglas Short Consulting  --  Science Applications International Corp.  --  Energis Resources  --  Trigen HQ Energy Services  --  ABB Systems Controls

Official Sponsor Organizations:
AEE  --  EPRI  --  GRI  --  EEI  --  International Private Energy Association  --  End-User News  --  Bloomberg Energy Services  --  Distributed Power Coalition of America  --  Caterpillar Inc.  --  Source Book: The Energy Industry's Journal of Issues  --  Cogeneration & Competitive Power Journal

End-users attend for less than half price!

Attend this conference to learn how to take advantage of the opportunities and understand the issues for the installation of Distributed Generation

    Opportunities: Improved generating & fuel efficiencies and reduced emissions;
    Smaller optimum plant size Issues: Grid connection; Dispatchability; Systems protection; Load interactions; Control tools

    Opportunities: PURPA; EPAct; Federal and State incentive programs and tax initiatives     Issues: FERC's order 888/889; Clean Air Act Amendments

    Opportunities: Lower costs of production; Power production close to loads; Deferral of T&D upgrades and additions: Incremental capacity additions result in shorter lead times and lower cost; Assistance from new players including IPP's, ESCOs, Power Marketers: Convergence of electric industry restructuring and natural gas industry restructuring
     Issues: Higher initial cost of some technologies; Determining localized costs, localized benefits, and value of service; Wholesale and retail wheeling on the horizon

    Opportunities: Cleaner fuels and reduced emissions of technologies; Small foot print and modular technologies facilitates
    Issues: filing and compliance responsibilities

This conference has been researched and designed specifically for all industrial, commercial, government and institutional end-users including
* National Accounts Energy Buyers & Operations Managers
* Commercial & Governmental Property/Facility Managers
* Industrial/Manufacturing Facility Managers/Energy Buyers
* Building Managers & Plant Engineers
* CEOs and CFOs and other Asset & Capital Managers
>From and on-site generators,  hospitals & healthcare facilities, manufacturers, schools and universities, commercial real estate developers and municipalities

**** Special Discount rates for Industrial, Commercial, Institutional Energy Consumers and On-sight Generators Half off the registration fee!   (also Federal, State & Local Government Employees)


 Utility Presidents, CEOs, CFOs, Controllers, Directors, Vice Presidents and Managers from ESCOS, DISCOS, GENCOS and Utilities
* Energy Service Companies & Consultants
* Outsourcing Firms, Third Party Contractors, Performance Contractors
* Electric & Gas Utility Marketing Managers
* Energy Producers, Brokers and Marketers


Subject: UFTO Fwd: Sandia's PV News: Possible Procurement for Remote Power
Date: Thu, 19 Mar 1998 08:29:30 -0800


(Forwarding note about renewable funding source...)

Subject: Sandia's PV News: Possible Procurement for Remote Power
Date: 18 Mar 1998 16:54:03 -0700
From: PVSAC <pvsac@sandia.gov>


     Last year, the Congress passed legislation, as follows:

     "Federal buildings/ Remote power initiatives -- The House and Senate
     each included proposals intended to direct the Department (of Energy)
     to identify and pursue near term opportunities to exploit the
     strengths of solar and renewable energy technologies. The conference
     agreement includes both initiatives and provides $5,000,000 for these
     activities.  The Department is directed to provide the House and
     Senate Committees on Appropriations with a program plan which includes
     a funding profile, and criteria for awarding proposals.  All proposals
     must include a cost benefit analysis.  The Department may approve only
     proposals that have verifiable, favorable cost benefits over a period
     of not more than ten years.  Cost benefits shall be based exclusively
     on actual monetary costs and savings."

     As part of its response to this legislation, the Department of Energy
     issued a procurement through its State Energy Program office for up to
     $1.2 million in cost-shared projects, with the Department's share
     being 25% of the cost, awarded in the form of a grant.  The proposals
     that were submitted total substantially less than the available funds,
     so the Department is considering reissuing the procurement.  The
     Department has asked for our assistance in publicizing this
     opportunity.  In particular, we feel that the renewable energy
     industry may bring projects that would meet the procurement
     requirements to the attention of the states.

     It is our understanding that the procurement requires that proposals
     be submitted through offices of state government, but does not require
     state matching funds.  All matching funds could be provided by a
     private party for a privately-owned project as long as the state were
     willing to participate in proposing the project to the Department.

     We would like feedback on whether there is sufficient interest in these
     projects to justify reissuing this call for proposals.  Also, we are
     interested in feedback on the content of the statement of work below.
     Note, however, that the ten-year cost/benefit period is a requirement
     of the legislation.  Please reply to this e-mail or via the phone
     numbers listed below.

     The complete procurement may be found at

     Only 6.52 is proposed to be reissued.

     Total Funds:                       At least $1.2 million Estimated
     number of projects:      12 or more
     Match:                             300%; higher leveraging encouraged

     In much of the developing world, and portions of the U.S., the costs of
     electricity transmission and distribution systems are prohibitive.  As
     a result, large amounts of electricity, heating and cooling is provided
     by comparatively expensive and polluting diesel equipment or gasoline.
     In many cases renewable energy technologies are cost-competitive, but
     underutilized because of lack of consumer acceptance or reliability.
     This solicitation focuses on applications of renewable energy for
     remote energy needs, to demonstrate cost-effective, modular
     technologies as reliable, easy to operate, and easy to maintain.

     Projects Requested in FY 1998:
     Grants are available for design, purchase and installation of
     renewable energy technologies including solar hot water (SHW),
     photovoltaic (PV), wind  and biomass technologies in remote areas
     where they would displace or avoid the use of diesel fuel or gasoline.

     Examples of remote applications could include island mini-grid systems
     that supplement or displace existing or planned diesel/gasoline
     generation, or end-of-line systems or off-grid applications that could
     not be cost-effectively served by line extensions.  All projects must
     include a cost-benefit analysis showing verifiable, favorable,
     monetary cost/benefit ratios over an analysis period of 10 years or
     less.  They must also include an estimate of avoided or displaced
     fossil fuel generation, and an estimate of the number of similar
     applications that might be possible.  Projects that demonstrate new
     products or applications that have a significant future market
     potential are desired.  Examples could include products that also
     replace building materials, innovative hybrid designs combining
     renewable energy technologies like PV and SHW systems that combine
     heat and electricity services, or projects that demonstrate new
     applications like telecommunication services for off-grid or remote

     Evaluation Criteria:
     State proposals will be ranked according to the following criteria: 1)
     Value in demonstrating a viable application of renewable energy that
     can be replicated at other sites, including the number and size of
     potential applications. (30%)
     2) Technical quality of plans for system design, operation and
     maintenance.  (20%)
     3) Cost sharing above the 300% match requirement.  (20%)
     4) State involvement in planning and implementing the projects, and
     follow-up plans for disseminating results and lessons learned within
     the State, and/or nationally.  (10%)
     5) Demonstration of new technology or applications to advance consumer
     acceptance and/or reliability, for example building integration, or
     new types of services for an area. (10%)
     6) Value of displaced diesel or other fossil fuel generation and other
     monetary benefits (10%)


     Sandia PV Projects
     (505) 844-3698 (phone)
     (505) 844-6541 (fax)

     Sandia is a partner in the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV).
     Work performed at Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the NCPV
     is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Photovoltaic
     and Wind Technology, James Rannels, Director.


Subject:  UFTO Note - FERC Conf. on ISOs
    Date:  Mon, 16 Mar 1998
   From:  Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>
      To:   uftolist@ufto.com


On Friday, FERC announced it will hold a conference on policies regarding ISOs.  Here is the notice in its entirety, as taken from the FERC CIPS online system, at

For future reference, the FERC website is at:



                          UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

     Inquiry Concerning the            )
     Commission's Policy on            )     Docket No. PL98-5-000
     Independent System Operators      )

                           NOTICE OF CONFERENCE
                              (March 13, 1998)

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby announces that it will convene a public conference to discuss its policies concerning Independent System Operators (ISOs).  The conference will be held on April 15-16, 1998.  Primarily, the Commission intends to examine the future of ISOs in administering the electric transmission grid on a regional basis.  It wishes to examine whether any changes to the Commission's policies that affect the development of ISOs are appropriate in order to promote competition and reliability in bulk power markets.  The Commission expects to address issues pertaining to the formation and responsibilities of ISOs, whether ISOs can serve as an effective vehicle for further industry reform, and the appropriate roles for federal and state regulators in ISO development.

I.   Introduction

 In Order Nos. 888 and 889 and their progeny (1) ,  the Commission established the fundamental principles of non- discriminatory open access transmission services.  Nevertheless, many issues remain to be addressed if the Nation is to fully realize the benefits of open access and more competitive electric markets.  The formation of regional ISOs may facilitate achievement of the Commission's pro-competitive goals.

(1)  See Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open Access Nondiscriminatory Transmission Services by Public Utilities; and Recovery of Stranded Costs by Public Utilities and Transmitting Utilities, Order No. 888, 61 Fed. Reg. 21,540 (1996), FERC Stats. & Regs.   31,036 (1996), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 Fed Reg. 12,274 (1997), FERC Stats.  & Regs.   31,048 (1997), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-B,  81 FERC   61,248 (1997), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-C,  82 FERC   61,046 (1998).  Open-Access Same-Time Information System and Standards of Conduct, Order No. 889, 61 Fed. Reg. 21,737 (1996), FERC Stats. & Regs.   31,035 (1996), order on reh'g, Order No. 889-A, 62 Fed. Reg. 12,484 (1997), FERC Stats. & Regs.   31,049 (1997), order on reh'g, Order No. 889-B, 81 FERC   61,253 (1997).

In the wake of the unprecedented restructuring taking place in the electric industry, the Commission has received several proposals for forming ISOs and a number of regions are also in the process of developing ISO proposals.  The Commission has approved ISOs in California, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM), and for the New England Power Pool (New England).  In addition, proposals have been filed for creating ISOs in the Midwest and New York.  Utilities and other market participants in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas have also formed an independent system administrator.  Members of the Mid Continent Area Power Pool and the Southwest Power Pool are discussing respective ISO proposals.  In the Pacific Northwest, utilities have been involved in negotiations intended to lead to the formation of an ISO (Indego).  Also, utilities in New Mexico, Arizona, and Nevada have agreed to pursue development of an ISO (Desert Star).  In addition, 11 investor-owned utilities from Ohio to the District of Columbia have signed a memorandum of understanding to explore the creation of an independent regional transmission entity.

  This activity, and the growing popularity of the ISO concept, presents important and even urgent questions involving the appropriate function and organization of an ISO, whether the Commission should be more active or prescriptive in this area, and whether the pro-competition goals of Commission Order Nos. 888 and 889 can be further advanced with ISOs.  We note that 11 state commissions have recently filed a petition in Docket No. PL98-3-000 suggesting that the Commission generically address ISO issues.

Although the Commission has not prescribed a single approach to ISOs, it has provided significant guidance regarding the proper formation and functions of ISOs.  Given the dramatic changes taking place in both wholesale and retail electric markets and the many proposals under consideration with respect to the creation of ISOs or other transmission entities, such as transmission-only utilities, it is time for the Commission to take stock of its policies in order to determine whether they appropriately support our dual goals of eliminating undue discrimination and promoting competition in electric power markets.  Accordingly, the discussion below provides a description of topic areas that we would like to explore at the conference for purposes of refining our ISO policies.

II.  Panels

The Commission will organize the conference according to the following panel discussions.  Appended to this notice is an extensive list of questions and topics assembled by Commission staff for each panel discussion.  Participants will find it a general indication of the scope of the Commission's interest in relation to each panel.  The Commission also invites interested parties to address their written comments to the questions listed as well as to any related ISO matters of generic interest.


Panel 1   Basic Structure and Role

What will be the significance of the ISO's role in the evolution of wholesale and retail electric markets?  Should the ISO control some or all aspects of grid operations in order to promote competition in wholesale and retail power markets?  Must the ISO be a control area operator?

Panel 2   Regulation, Governance, and Independence

How should ISOs be formed, governed, and regulated, given the current and foreseeable restructuring of the electric industry?


Panel 3   Role of States

What is the appropriate role for states in the oversight of single-state and multi-state ISOs?

 Panel 4   ISOs and Reliability

Can the formation of regional ISOs promote or enhance the reliability or security of the regional grid?

Panel 5   ISOs and Transmission Pricing

How might ISOs facilitate transmission pricing reform?

Panel 6   ISOs and Market Monitoring

Should ISOs have monitoring and sanctioning functions and, if so, can they be sufficiently independent to enable the Commission to rely upon their processes?

Panel 7   ISOs and FERC Regulation

Should the Commission require, to the extent it has the authority to require, transmission owners to form or join an ISO in the interest of preventing undue discrimination, mitigating market power, completing a nascent regional ISO, or achieving any other benefits?

III. Participation In Conference

The Commission believes that it would be beneficial at this juncture to further explore our transmission policies.  To that end, we announce today a conference, as discussed above, to examine our current policies on ISOs and any appropriate changes to those policies to further our pro-competitive goals.  The conference will take place on April 15-16, 1998, at the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20426.  The conference will commence at 1:30 p.m. on April 15 and at 9:30 a.m. on April 16, and will be open to all interested persons.

Persons wishing to speak at the conference must submit a request to make a statement in Docket No. PL98-5-000.  The request should clearly specify the name of the person desiring to speak and the party or parties the speaker represents.  The request must also include a brief synopsis (not to exceed three pages) of the issue or issues the speaker wishes to address.  All requests must be filed with the Office of the Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20426, on or before March 31, 1998.  The Commission may also contact industry experts to participate in the conference.  The Commission will issue a further notice listing the speakers and panels for the conference.

In addition, all interested persons are invited to submit written comments (not to exceed 10 pages) addressing topics to be discussed at the conference.  Comments must also be filed on or before March 31, 1998, in Docket No. PL98-5-000.  After the conference, interested persons may also submit written comments, with all such comments due on or before May 1, 1998.  All comments will be placed in the Commission's public files and will be available for inspection or copying in the Commission's Public Reference Room during normal business hours.  Comments are also accessible via the Commission's Records Information Management System (RIMS).

If there is sufficient interest, the Capitol Connection will broadcast the technical conference on April 15-16, 1998, to interested persons.  Persons interested in receiving the broadcast for a fee should contact Shirley Al-Jarani at the Capitol Connection (703)993-3100 no later than April 3, 1998.

In addition, National Narrowcast Network's Hearings-On-the Line service covers all FERC meetings live by telephone so that anyone can listen at their desk, from their homes, or from any phone without special equipment.  Call (202) 966-2211 for details.  Billing is based on time on-line.

     David P. Boergers Acting Secretary




Panel 1   Basic Structure and Role

What is the optimal size of an ISO?  What factors (e.g., transmission technology, legal/jurisdictional distinctions, reliability councils) should affect the size of an ISO?

What are appropriate ISO operational responsibilities?  Should the ISO operate SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)  systems, switches, reactive power devices, transformer switching, phase shifters, and other transmission control equipment?  Should the ISO control transmission facility maintenance schedules?  Should the ISO control generation facilities that provide ancillary services, such as reactive power from generation, regulation and operating reserves?  Should the ISO be able to direct the generation dispatch decisions of control area operators if the ISO itself is not a control area operator?  Should the Commission further define the operational features of an ISO (i.e., should the Commission specify additional standards that define what is meant by an effective system operation and control), or should we allow substantial regional variation?  What is the appropriate role for an ISO with regard to grid planning and expansion?

To ensure non-discriminatory transmission access, must an ISO be a control area operator?  If there is a requirement that an ISO be a single control area operator and that is not feasible or cost-effective over a large area, would the result be an ISO that is too small to achieve other efficiencies like the elimination of pancaked transmission rates?  Would a requirement that an ISO be a control area operator enhance competition and lower barriers to entry in the generation market?  Does an ISO member that is also a control area operator have access to information that gives it an unfair advantage if it is also a market participant?

Some industry participants question whether ISOs will be permanent institutions or whether they are only transitional.  Are ISOs merely part of a transitional phase for the electric industry or will ISOs be a permanent fixture in the industry structure for the foreseeable future?  Is an ISO a stepping-stone to the independent regional transmission grid company?  Should ISOs be designed consistent with the possible evolution to a regional gridco (i.e., a company that both owns and operates the high voltage grid)?  Are there features of ISOs (e.g., stakeholder boards, not-for-profit status, ISOs serving as the operator of the PX) that will either enhance or inhibit their possible evolution into gridcos?  What changes in ISO structure would be necessary to enable an ISO to more easily evolve into a gridco?  Is a gridco (either for-profit or non-profit) preferable to a non-profit ISO that does not own transmission facilities?

Should the Commission encourage the formation of other transmission entities, i.e., private for-profit or government owned transmission entities?  Would other types of transmission entities be better suited to sustain competition?

Panel 2   Regulation, Governance, and Independence

The Commission has not mandated a specific form of ISO governance, although it has emphasized that independence of the ISO "is the bedrock upon which the ISO must be built if stakeholders are to have confidence that it will function in a manner consistent with this Commission's pro-competitive goals." (2)    In addition, the Commission has stressed that expertise is also critical, since transmission owners would be understandably reluctant to turn over control of their transmission assets to an operator that lacks the necessary operational expertise.

(2)  Atlantic City Electric Company, et al., 77 FERC   61,148 at 61,574 (1996).

The recent trend has been toward a two-tiered form of governance:  an independent non-stakeholder board, whose members are not affiliated with market participants, advised by committees of stakeholders.  Within the ISO, the independent non- stakeholder board has the ultimate decision-making authority.  Some have suggested that the two-tiered approach seems to have the advantage of combining independence with expertise.  The two- tiered approach has been adopted in New England and PJM.

Should the Commission encourage or define a particular form of ISO governance beyond the independence principle?  Should the Commission establish additional standards in the area of governance, but allow reasonable variations on a regional basis?  Because transmission system owners do not have a controlling vote in an ISO, should the owners be allowed to establish any ISO rules that cannot be changed by vote of the ISO Board, as a condition for the owners to join the ISO?  Should the ISO have the authority to modify transmission tariffs and operating rules without seeking the approval of the transmission owners?  Should the Commission require more specificity on the division of liability between the transmission owners and the ISO?     If the Commission is satisfied that an ISO's governance arrangements ensure independence (i.e., are neutral relative to the economic interests of different classes of market participants and to different states), should the Commission give more deference to the decisions made by the ISO governing board?  The experience in other countries suggests that ISOs need to make many adjustments in their early stages of development.  The ability of ISOs to make necessary changes in their rules may be slowed down if the Commission employs the same review processes that have historically been applied to the rate filings of traditional vertically integrated public utilities and to power pools with governance structures dominated by transmission owners.  Are there streamlined or light-handed regulatory processes that would allow independently governed ISOs to make needed rule changes while still ensuring that the Commission can function as a "backstop" to protect the public interest?

The relationship between an ISO and any power exchange (PX) is also an important issue to consider pertaining to ISO formation.  The relationship between an ISO and PX can take on different forms:  in California, the ISO will be the control area operator and the PX mandated by State restructuring legislation will be operated independently of the ISO as one of several possible exchanges; in PJM, the ISO operates the PX; and the Midwest ISO does not propose to be either a control area operator or to administer any centralized power exchange.  Do the operational features of power systems require that the ISO and PX be one and the same in order for the marketplace to operate efficiently, or can efficiencies be maximized if such institutions operate independently?  Should we require that an ISO be associated with a PX?  If so, under what conditions?


Panel 3   Role of States

ISOs are likely to become increasingly important as states restructure retail electric markets and retail choice becomes more widespread.  States will continue to have a critical role in encouraging and shaping the formation of ISOs.  Once an ISO is formed, however, what is the appropriate role of the states?  What should be the role of the state in such matters as:  reviewing ISO grid expansion plans; determining whether the ISO, the original transmission owners, or third parties should own additions to the grid; enforcing obligations for right-of-way maintenance; and resolving disputes over transmission and local distribution interfaces?  Should ISOs have advisory committees that include state commission members?  Is there an appropriate role for joint boards between this Commission and affected state commissions?  How should the states' role differ with respect to single-state ISOs vis-a-vis multi-state ISOs?

 Panel 4   ISOs and Reliability

One purpose of an ISO that is a control area operator is to make an independent party, the ISO, responsible for at least short-term reliability.  Increased competition in wholesale electricity markets has resulted in many new market participants, and has fostered a great increase in the number and variety of wholesale transmission and power sale arrangements, including ancillary services needed to accomplish transmission service.  As the number of power sales continues to increase, the Nation's high voltage transmission system is being used more extensively and in ways that differ from its original design.  Recent experience indicates that line loading is increasingly problematic.  As usage grows, it is increasingly important for regional stability that transmission providers have access to greater information in order to maintain the reliability of the grid.

The Commission is committed to ensuring that the rules and practices for reliable operation of the grid are compatible with open, non-discriminatory use of transmission systems.  Regional ISOs would be aware of power flows over a broader geographic region and would be independent of the competitive pressures affecting market participants engaged in power sales and purchases.  Are there opportunities for regional ISOs to address reliability concerns and thereby maintain, and even enhance, the reliability of the transmission grid in an open access environment?  Should an ISO have a special relationship with regional reliability authorities or should it establish its own mandatory reliability rules?  If so, should the rules be determined on a regional or national basis?  What is necessary to ensure that regional ISOs will have access to all information required for them to determine power flows in their region?  Should the ISO be responsible for both calculating and posting regional ATC values, along with the method and data used to determine these values?  Should the ISO be allowed to implement voluntary redispatching of resources for transmission loading relief, before pro-rata curtailment?  Would a regional ISO, as compared to an individual transmission owner, be able to manage congested interfaces and loop flow issues in a more efficient and non-discriminatory manner?

The North American Electric Reliability Council has encouraged the development of security coordinators.  What rules should apply so that the ISOs' responsibilities for maintaining reliability appropriately complement utilities' obligations to maintain reliability at the retail level?  Would it be preferable for the ISO to be the security coordinator in its region?

Would other entities through entrepreneurial efforts provide better reliability?

Panel 5   ISOs and Transmission Pricing

Regional ISOs can serve as a vehicle for making transmission pricing more efficient and thereby promote competition in electric markets.  Pancaked transmission rates are a barrier to efficient trading because they add an embedded cost charge every time a transaction crosses a corporate boundary.  A non-pancaked rate gives buyers and sellers of electricity greater access over a broader geographic market and thereby can remove one of the greatest barriers to trade.  Further, regional ISOs may be able to take account of loop flows and price transmission congestion efficiently.  Should the Commission establish a uniform method for transmission pricing in regional ISOs, or should transmission pricing be considered on a region-by-region basis?  Is it more appropriate for a customer to pay an access charge based on the costs of the transmission owner where the load is located?  Or, should the Commission require that access charges be set using a single, uniform rate?  Should the Commission consider providing for incentive rates of return to the ISO or transmission owners?  If so, how should such incentives be structured?  Should they be designed to maximize throughput on the grid or more general measures of efficiency?  Should the Commission encourage a uniform model for pricing transmission congestion?  Could other transmission entities provide adequate pricing alternatives?

Panel 6   ISOs and Market Monitoring

An ISO is a regulated public utility.  However, it is not a traditional public utility because it is typically a non-profit organization that provides services to all market participants and is not directly controlled by any single participant or class of participants.  Because the ISO will be involved in the day-to- day operation of the grid, it will know more about the grid and perhaps market operations than any other regional organization.  While the Commission cannot abdicate its responsibilities to ensure just and reasonable rates and non-discriminatory terms and conditions of jurisdictional services, ISOs have the potential to monitor the competitiveness of regional bulk power markets and assess the availability of non-discriminatory access to transmission and ancillary services.  In orders issued in the California and PJM restructuring proceedings, the Commission (3) required the ISOs to develop market monitoring plans.

(3)  See Pacific Gas and Electric Company, et al., 77 FERC   61,265 at 62,087 (1996); Pacific Gas and Electric Company, et al., 81 FERC   61,122 at 61,548-54 (1997); Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection, et al., 81 FERC   61,257 at 62,282 (1997).

    As explained in PJM, a market monitoring function must be conducted in an independent and objective manner.  Should the Commission require every ISO to have a market monitoring plan?  Should a market monitoring plan allow the ISO to detect and report market power abuses (vertical and horizontal), assess undue discrimination in the provision of transmission and ancillary services, and assure compliance with the ISO's rules?  Would it be appropriate to include enforcement mechanisms (e.g., sanctions and mitigation actions) with a monitoring function?  Must the Commission review any ISO-imposed sanction or would it be appropriate to act only upon complaint?  Are there any limitations on the Commission's authority to permit initial market monitoring to be conducted by ISOs?   Should the Commission rely in the first instance on the ISO to monitor discriminatory behavior?

Is it necessary and feasible for ISOs to monitor bilateral markets?  Are the potential remedies available to ISOs (e.g., price caps, bidding caps, loss of bidding privileges) likely to be effective if the underlying problem is structural?  Should there be different market monitoring requirements for ISOs that do not operate centralized energy markets?

Panel 7   ISOs and FERC Regulation

In Order Nos. 888 and 888-A, the Commission elected not to mandate the formation of ISOs.  We stated, however, that if it becomes apparent that functional unbundling is inadequate or unworkable in assuring non-discriminatory open access transmission, we would reevaluate our position and decide whether other mechanisms, such as ISOs, should be required.  In Order No. 888-A, we recognized that it would be appropriate to allow some time to confirm whether the functional unbundling mandated by Order Nos. 888 and 889 will remedy undue discrimination before reconsidering our decision that ISO formation should be (4) voluntary.    Given that the industry has now operated under the Order No. 888 open access regime for almost two years, the question now before us is whether we should go beyond our current policy of merely encouraging regional ISOs.

            (4)  Order No. 888-A at 30,249.

Have competitive electricity markets had sufficient time to develop in the two year period since the issuance of Order No. 888 for the Commission now to consider mandating the formation of ISOs?  Will properly structured and constituted ISOs develop if the Commission continues its policy of encouraging voluntary efforts to create ISOs?  Would a Commission policy requiring the formation of appropriately sized and properly structured ISOs hasten the development of fully competitive markets?  Would the formation of ISOs allow the Commission to intrude less into grid management and pricing decisions?

The Commission would also like to consider the related issue of whether all public utilities in a region should be required to participate in an ISO when an ISO proposal is geographically fractured.  Should the Commission be concerned if some public utility transmission owners in a region refuse to join the ISO?  Will a patchwork ISO within a region raise issues of undue discrimination?  What should the Commission's response be to a proposal that has so many geographic holes that it does not permit effective regional competition and may hinder assurance of reliability?  Should the Commission define appropriate geographic boundaries for ISOs?

 Should the Commission require membership in an ISO in order to remedy undue discrimination under Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA)?  Would our authority to remedy undue discrimination be broader if an ISO proposal is geographically incomplete (e.g., if similarly situated customers were paying different transmission service rates -- one pancaked and one not)?  What is the Commission's authority in these matters over transmitting utilities that are not public utilities?

The Commission has strongly encouraged merger applicants to join an appropriate ISO.  Would it be appropriate for the Commission to generically find that a merger applicant's participation in an appropriately structured ISO is necessary to find that a merger of jurisdictional facilities is consistent    5 with the public interest under FPA Section 203?    Should the Commission continue considering whether ISO membership is necessary in individual merger proceedings?

FPA Section 202(a) provides that "the Commission is empowered and directed to divide the country into regional districts for the voluntary interconnection and coordination of facilities for the generation, transmission, and sale of electric energy."  This authority currently resides with the Department of Energy (DOE).  If DOE were to use its authority, or delegate that authority to the Commission, should Section 202(a) be used to enhance the development of ISOs in a rational, comprehensive manner?  Would Section 202(a) empower DOE or the Commission to define appropriate geographic boundaries for ISOs?


UFTO Note - Utility Restructuring Weekly Update
Date: Fri, 13 Mar 1998 15:33:40 -0800


A reminder that this weekly service is available from DOE.  Anyone can
request to be added to the email distribution list.  (Only a small portion of the
current list is shown in the note below.)  Notice the coming availability on
DOE's website.

I have an electronic file of back issues from 5/97 on, if you need them.

 Subject: Utility Restructuring Weekly Update
Date: Fri, 13 Mar 1998 17:05:00 -0500
From: Jennifer.Bergman@ee.doe.gov
To: (distribution)

     Please note: Effective March 23rd the Weekly will be available on the
     Internet at http://www.eren.doe.gov/utilities/weekly.html.  The March
     20th and March 27th editions of the Weekly will not be e-mailed.  We
     expect to resume e-mail delivery for the April 3rd edition.

     March 13, 1998

                        Utility Restructuring Weekly Update

     This weekly information has been compiled by Energetics, Inc. for the
     U.S. Department of Energy.  Questions or comments on subscribing to
     the weekly should be directed to either Jennifer Bergman, Energetics,
     Jen_Bergman@Energetics.com, or Diane Pirkey, U.S. Department of
     Energy, DIANE.PIRKEY@HQ.DOE.GOV.  All other inquiries should be
     directed to the specific organization in question.


     An advisory committee, comprised of leaders from the electric and
     natural gas industries, Congress,
     Federal agencies, utilities, and consumer groups, recently released a
     report on federal and state restructuring policy and guidelines.
     "Restructuring the Electric Utility Industry: A Consumer Perspective,"
     prepared by the Consumer Energy Council of America Research Foundation
     (CECA/RF),  provides recommendations on restructuring issues for all
     consumers, particularly small commercial and residential users.  The
     following are some of the recommendations made in the final report:
     (1) Congress should pass restructuring legislation soon; (2) consumers
     should be allowed to stay with their current provider and pay
     cost-based rates during the transition period of stranded costs
     recovery; (3) consumers should have access to and receive the
     information necessary to make informed choices; (4) public benefits
     programs should be continued; and (5) market power issues and
     solutions should be studied further and recommendations presented.
     The report is available from CECA/FA at (202) 659-0404.
     CECA/RF Press Release, March 4th

     Rep. Stearns is developing a restructuring bill that would give states
     the ability to pursue competition in the electricity industry.
     According to Stearns, "Congress should be careful not to mandate re-
     regulation... We should empower the states to enact measures providing
     their customers with retail competition and choice."  The legislation
     is said to include a reciprocity provision that would prohibit
     utilities from competing for customers if their own state was not open
     for customer choice.  This bill is seen by some as an alternative to
     Rep. Schaefer's bill and could possibly gain more bipartisan support
     because it does not mandate a date certain for retail choice.
     Congress Daily, March 9th

     With competition coming to California at the end of this month, only
     33,000 out of the 10 million electricity customers have signed up with
     new energy suppliers.  Of these 33,000 customers, only 14,000 are
     residential and small commercial customers.  It seems as if many of
     the California consumers are listening to the Southern California
     Edison ads that say "Do Nothing" about competition.
     EnergyOnline, March 9th


     The Justice Department approved the proposed merger between Enova
     Corp. and Pacific Enterprises.  As a part of the merger, which would
     form Sempra Energy, San Diego Gas & Electric will sell two of its
     fossil-fuel plants.
     Electricity Daily, March 12th

     Stranded Benefits:

     The U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission
     signed an agreement to promote the development energy-efficiency
     technologies.  This plan is the first of its kind and it is being
     viewed as a step toward guaranteeing that research for innovative
     energy sources continues in a restructured electricity industry.  The
     agreement, which is in a Memorandum of Understanding, focuses on
     energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies and encourages the
     development of advanced electricity generation systems.
     PowerPlus, March 9th

     The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) has developed three major
     principles that would guide buyers and sellers in a competitive
     marketplace.  Under AWEA's green marketing principles, green power
     products must include power from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal
     resources.  There should be no repackaging of electricity from
     renewables that are "already being paid for by utility ratepayers" and
     existing and new entrants must compete, with no preference given for
     new projects.
     Electricity Daily, March 5th

UFTO Note - ESA Newsletter
Date: Thu, 12 Mar 1998
To: uftolist@ufto.com
CC: "HURWITCH, Jon / Switch" <jwitch@switch.smart.net>,
     Cara Molinari <CMOLINAR@sentech.org>

(By special permission from ESA, here is their latest newsletter.)

March 1998                      Issue #9

 The ESA has listened to its membership and is being responsive to what the membership says it wants from the ESA. In our survey of ESA members over the last few months, the number one thing you want from the ESA is promotion and a forum so that potential customers are aware of the value and opportunities for including energy storage in their business plans. Energy Storage: It's About Time! Is the theme for our new brochure and our marketing campaign for the next several years? Our new brochure should be available at the Spring meeting and the ESA staff is hard at work to deliver this message throughout the industry.

Our upcoming meeting in Phoenix is also focusing on the customer. The meeting's preliminary agenda (mailed last week) includes presentations by power quality customer's that have incorporated energy storage, electric utility customer's that are installing energy storage, and fuel cell developers incorporating energy storage into their designs. Along with the exceptional visits to Arizona Public Service Company and Salt River Project (not to mention the amenities available in the Phoenix area), we expect our meeting to have outstanding attendance.
Edited by:
JON HURWITCH, Executive Director
LAURA WALTEMATH, Projects Director

Please contact ESA office at:
  fax 301-951-3235


UFTO Note - Energy Storage Assoc. Spring Meeting
Date: Tue, 10 Mar 1998 14:30:53 -0800

(See UFTO Note 1/13/98 for most recent news from the ESA)

Here's the preliminary agenda for the ESA's upcoming spring meeting, April 7,8
in Phoenix.  I am tentatively planning to attend at least a part of the meeting.  Hope to see you there. (See UFTO Note 1/13/98 for most recent news from the ESA.)

Energy Storage Association Spring Meeting 1998
Preliminary Agenda of Invited Speakers (updated March 6, 1998)

Monday, April 6
12 noon - 6:00 pm  ESA Board of Directors Meeting

Tuesday, April 7
8:30 am - 8:45 am  Welcome and Introduction
 - Phil Symons, Chairman, Energy Storage Association



UFTO Note - Progress: Nortel/Norweb UK Digital Powerline
Date: Fri, 06 Mar 1998
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>


Progress: Nortel/Norweb UK Digital Powerline

Last Oct 8, Nortel and Norweb in the UK made a big announcement about a breakthrough in putting data over the powerline at up to 1 megabit/sec. UFTO Notes on Oct 8 and 22 supplied information that was available at that time. (See the UFTO Database-do a search for "nortel" to get a copy of these two notes.)  In mid December, another press release was issued on the test being run at a school in Manchester, England.  The system is operational.

Understandably, UFTO's initial query to Nortel back in October got lost in the chaos that followed their first announcement. Now with a recent follow up, we have new information and a unique opportunity to get involved at the front end of this remarkable development.

1.  More details about the system now officially named "Digital Powerline" are available on Nortel's website at:


2.  Nortel and Norweb will announce in the coming weeks how they intend to pursue worldwide commercial deployment of this product.

3.  Nortel North America, headquartered in Atlanta, has a group that sells networking equipment and services to the electric utility industry.  This group has lined up two US utilities for a preliminary study of their distribution system configurations, to be able to begin the process of understanding the best prospects for deployment -- i.e.  markets, locations, niches, and technical issues, etc.

The system serves as the communications link to the customer's premises, and provides an "always on" internet connection.  A small box next to the meter connects via coax cable to the customer's computer.  The ISP would connect to the utility's backbone which connects via fiber or other dedicated high-bandwidth transport means.  As the website explains, one big issue for N. America is the number of customers per distribution transformer (8-10, vs. 100 or more in the UK), and the possible need for some kind of bypass technology.

More technical details beyond what appears on the website can be made available only under a non-disclosure.

The Nortel group in Atlanta would welcome the opportunity to enter into discussions with UFTO utilities.  Contact: Barbara Warren, 770-708-5117, bswarren@nortel.com

UFTO Note - DOE Reliability TF draft papers
Date: Wed, 04 Mar 1998


(Forwarding information from the DOE SEAB TF.  I've reformatted the attachments for convenience.  The minutes will be posted on their website -- http://www.hr.doe.gov/seab -- but probably not the draft papers.)

Attached for your information are four draft papers that will be discussed by the DOE Task Force on Electric System Reliability at their meeting on March 10 at the ANA Hotel in Washington, D.C.

Also attached are the minutes of the January Task Force meeting.

    Minutes of Seventh Task Force Meeting   January 13, 1998
    Technical Issues in Transmission System Reliability
    The Characteristics of the Independent System Operator

UFTO Note - Chemical Treatments Neutralize Asbestos
Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998
From: Ed Beardsworth <edbeards@ufto.com>


Chemical Treatments Neutralize Asbestos

Brookhaven National Lab and WR Grace issued a major joint press release last December (attached below) announcing the development of a new commercially available treatment process that changes the chemical makeup of chrysotile asbestos.  This is the type of asbestos used in fireproof coatings on structural steel.

The process destroys the asbestos in place, while maintaining its fireproofing properties.  An acidic foam is applied, which soaks in and digests the asbestos molecules.  The resulting material simply is not asbestos any more.

WR Grace has moved the effort from their R&D group to the Construction Products Group, and is in the process of lining up and training contractors around the country to do field applications.

    Contact Len Ciesluk,   410-531-4645,  leonard.ciesluk@grace.com

The form of asbestos used for thermal insulation (e.g. pipe wrapping and boilers, etc.) contains a different form of asbestos called amosite.  The WR Grace process does not apply to amosite, but work is proceeding rapidly at Brookhaven on other formulations that will deal with both types of asbestos (sometimes a mix is used).  Brookhaven is applying for patents, and is looking to DOE for additional funding.  They've already begun discussions with a few utilities, and would be delighted to talk to UFTO companies about working with them to turn this new chemistry into a commercial process, estimated to require only a few months.

   Contact is Leon Petrakis,   516-344-3037,  petrakis@bnl.gov


W.R. Grace - BNL Press Release


   --Product Destroys Asbestos While Maintaining Original Materials' Fire-resistive Capabilities on Columns and Beams--

 --Product Should Provide Significant Cost Savings to Building Owners--

BOCA RATON, FL & UPTON, NY, December 10, 1997-- W. R. Grace & Co. (NYSE:GRA) and the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory announced today a new product capable of destroying asbestos in installed fireproofing without diminishing the existing fire-resistive performance of the fireproofing material on columns and beams.

The new technique uses a foamy solution sprayed directly onto asbestos-containing fireproofing. The foam chemically digests asbestos fibers, dissolving them into harmless minerals.

When the treatment is done, the fireproofing is no longer a regulated material. The process is the first to chemically destroy asbestos without first removing the fireproofing.

Grace anticipates that building owners will realize significant cost savings from the new product. Current techniques for removing asbestos-containing fireproofing require the construction of air-tight barriers, labor-intensive scraping of the fireproofing, and the installation of new asbestos-free fireproofing. The new product eliminates the need to remove and replace older material and substantially reduces the time needed for the entire process. Moreover, the new process produces essentially no waste and is expected to save building owners the expense of disposing of regulated waste materials.

The new product is expected to be commercially available in early 1998.

Larry Ellberger, chief financial officer and acting chief executive officer of Grace, stated, "This product is an important advance in the science of asbestos abatement. Our scientists embarked on this research several years ago because it was a natural extension of our expertise and because we were committed to helping our customers find a more time-efficient and cost-effective alternative to asbestos removal. We are gratified by the excellent collaboration we have had with the scientists at Brookhaven, whose expertise in chemistry and materials science was a perfect complement to our scientists' knowledge of the product and its properties. Brookhaven's involvement was critical to the timely completion of this project. This is a win-win for Grace shareholders, building owners and industry-government cooperation."

Dr. Leon Petrakis, the senior scientist in charge of the project at Brookhaven, said, "We are delighted to have worked with Grace on this project. We believe our collaboration has led to a turning point in the important but until now rather overlooked science of asbestos abatement. This method could be used in thousands of schools, office buildings, hospitals, and other institutions around the country. We also believe it could lead to the development of a family of innovative materials that chemically digest asbestos-containing materials, with potential applications for addressing asbestos in thermal insulation at the Department of Energy, in other governmental facilities and in the utility industry."

             Extensive Tests Performed

Full-scale tests performed with the new product by Grace and Brookhaven have confirmed that its use would reduce asbestos to less than 1 percent, which is the Environmental Protection Agency's definition of non-asbestos materials. The asbestos-neutralizing process was first evaluated in Brookhaven's unique testing laboratory, specially equipped to handle asbestos. It was then tested at a vacant four-story building with existing asbestos-containing fireproofing.

The treated materials were tested at the Underwriters Laboratories in Northbrook, Illinois, pursuant to U.L.'s nationally recognized test procedures. Those tests demonstrated that treated fireproofing maintained the same fire rating on columns and beams as the originally installed material.

All tests performed to date used Grace's asbestos fireproofing. Project scientists, who are knowledgeable about the composition of asbestos-containing fireproofing made by others, believe the process should be effective on most of those products as well.

Although most of the efforts thus far have been centered around spray-applied fireproofing, laboratory tests conducted by Grace and Brookhaven have confirmed that the digestion process should also be effective with acoustical plasters.

Grace expects to receive six patents for the new asbestos-neutralizing process. Brookhaven has received one patent relating to the process and is applying for two others.

Brookhaven and Grace also developed a new quantitative analytical method that detects chrysotile asbestos fibers in material containing as little as 0.1 percent of the fibers. Development of the technique utilized the powerful X-rays of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, as well as conventional laboratory instruments.

           Scientific Cooperation at Work

The development of the asbestos-neutralizing process began at Grace several years ago. Through mutual participation in the Council for Chemical Research, scientists from Grace and Brookhaven met to discuss ways that Brookhaven could participate in the research.

"We recognized immediately that Brookhaven had many unique capabilities that could move this research along more effectively than if we had gone ahead alone," said David Myers, Grace's project manager. Among those special capabilities and facilities were the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the sophisticated laboratory where the first demonstrations of the process were performed.

The partners signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, which provided for joint funding of the multi-million dollar project. The project also received funding from the Department of Energy, which represents cooperation within that agency, including the DOE's Office of Environmental Management and the Office of Energy Research. Initial funding also came from Brookhaven's pool of Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds and its Department of Applied Science.

Grace, based in Boca Raton, Florida, is a leading global supplier of flexible packaging and specialty chemicals with annual sales of $3.5 billion. Grace is the world's leading producer of spray-applied fireproofing--Monokote® MK-6-- to protect structural steel against damage from fire. Grace operates in more than 100 countries.

Brookhaven National Laboratory carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. Brookhaven is operated by Associated Universities, Inc., a nonprofit research management organization, under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy.

                # # #

Brookhaven Laboratory scientists have helped create an innovative, safe solution to a tough problem that affects people around the country. This is just one example of many achievements at Brookhaven, known for its contributions in medicine, basic research, energy and environmental science. Partnerships between Department of Energy laboratories and private industry consistently reap tangible rewards. In this case, we will make a difference in safely removing asbestos from schools, houses, offices and other buildings."

UFTO Note- Next Meeting DOE Reliability TF
Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998

Next (8th) Meeting     DOE/SEAB- Electric System Reliability Task Force
  Tuesday, March 10, 1998,  8:30 AM - 4:00 PM.
  ANA Hotel, Ballroom I, 2401 M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20037

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:  Richard C. Burrow, Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (AB-1), U.S. Department of Energy,  (202) 586-1709 or (202) 586-6279 (fax).

Background   The electric power industry is in the midst of a complex transition to competition, which will induce many far-reaching changes in the structure of the industry and the institutions which regulate it.  This transition raises many reliability issues, as new entities emerge in the power markets and as generation becomes less integrated with transmission.

Purpose of the Task Force   The purpose of the Electric System Reliability Task Force is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board regarding the critical institutional, technical, and policy issues that need to be addressed in order to maintain the reliability of the nation's bulk electric system in the context of a more competitive industry.

Tentative Agenda
Tuesday, March 10, 1998
 8:30 -  8:45 AM   Opening Remarks & Objectives
                    -- Philip Sharp, ESR Task Force Chairman
 8:45 - 10:15 AM   Working Session: Discussion of Draft Position Paper
                   on Technical Issues in Transmission System Reliability
10:15 - 10:30 AM     Break
10:30 - 11:45 AM   Working Session: Discussion of a Draft Position Paper
                   on the Role and Shape of the Independent System Operator
11:45 - 12:45 PM     Lunch
12:45 -  1:45 PM   Working Session:  Discussion of a Draft Position Paper
                   on Ancillary Services and Bulk-Power Reliability
 1:45 -  2:45 PM   Working Session:  Discussion of a Draft Position Paper
                   on Incentives for Transmission Enhancement
 2:45 -  3:30 PM   Working Session:  Guest Presentation & Discussion of
                   State and Regional Reliability Issues
                    -- Philip Carver, Oregon Office of Energy
3:30 - 4:00 PM   Public Comment Period
4:00 PM        Adjourn

UFTO Note - Sandia Help Implementing Solar
Date: Mon, 16 Feb 1998


Sandia to Help Utilities Implement Solar Energy

Sandia has received funding to work with utilities interested in teaming with the solar industry to install solar systems in their territory.  The team will provide technical expertise to the utility in selecting technologies and, if warranted, work with industry partners to improve their systems.  This may result in partnerships (such as CRADAs) with some utilities and industry members.

Sandia staff are currently lining up utilities to visit for exploratory meetings.  For more information (and to be among the first companies to take advantage of this),

David Menicucci, 505-844-3077,  dfmenic@sandia.gov

For background on Sandia's renewable programs, their web site is at:

The goal is to help energy users consider and properly implement renewable energy technologies, as part of an educational outreach and technology transfer service on behalf of the Department of Energy's investment in development, commercialization, and deployment of renewable  energy technologies.  This effort is designed to complement, not compete with, the technical services available through the US industry.

Sandia's Renewable Energy Team  is a cross-technology group of engineers with  a primary focus on solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, and  biomass systems.  They can provide: 1) An on-site assessment of  energy needs applicable to renewable energy systems, 2) Help in renewable  energy program planning and implementation, 3) Help in deciding whether  renewable energy can work in certain applications, 4) Expert advice in  choosing renewable energy systems, 5) Calculations about the projected  energy and economic performance of a renewable energy system, 6) Advice during design and procurement, construction, operation of the system, and  operations monitoring, 7) Analysis, testing, and evaluation of systems, and  8) Training in renewable energy systems.