UFTO T&D Workshop -- Final Summary Notes

 Included below:

1. Background Issues
2. Highest ranking needs
3. Discussions on Utility Industry Needs
4. Labs Overview Presentations

UFTO Workshop
Nov. 11-12, 1996
Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL); Richland, WA

Lively discussions, good communication, worthwhile exchange of ideas and mutual education (labs to utilities, utility to utility, and lab to lab). Personal connections established. Numerous one-on-one discussions and plans for follow-up and possible collaborations (that weren't mentioned to the whole gathering).

 Feedback and Comments:
Positive overall. "Stated Goals were accomplished." Would have benefited from participation by more utilities, and more time for meetings and socializing. Question whether Labs were entirely comfortable revealing their ideas in the presence of each other. Would have helped if agenda had been more tightly defined earlier in planning for the workshop.

 The most clearly identified need was for underground cable remaining life/incipient fault, and fault location.

1. Background Issues
- Utility budget cycles --lead time to plan new development projects
- Decentralized decision making, or non-decision making
- Hi initial cost of new technology (chicken & egg)
- Need systems integration to get value from new technology
-takes too long and "too expensive"

 - Evolving definition of reliability
- Deferred maintenance on T&D due to cost cutting and uncertainty about restructuring.
- What rewards will there be for improving reliability??
- Rate of return still regulated, and increasingly tied to quality of service
- Increasing pressures for lower costs AND more functionality and efficiency

2. Highest ranking needs:
**Incipient fault/remaining life estimate

 - Distribution Cable (especially underground)
Current methods are not non-destructive (and don't know how much damage they do, e.g. effects of over voltage).
Current methods don't tell condition, and don't provide estimate of time-to-failure.
Vendors promoting new devices (meas. PD and time diff.) --hard to sort thru claims.
(One utility spends $4M/yr replacing cable--needs better prioritization method).

 - Transmission
HV flashover prediction--problem with false alarms and too-short lead
time (1 min)
(OHT has method to measure ice/salt-build-up; go to "safe" operating mode)
(De-icing methods have problems, e.g. environmental)

 - Devices
Rotating machinery -- partial discharge doing fairly well, but operators combine with other information to make judgments.
GIS--working fairly well.
Breakers--faster trip time desirable, but not a perceived need.

**Fault location

 EPRI Fast Fault Finder only for radial distrib feeders; need for other configurations.
Overhead lines--intermittent faults difficult to locate; need signature analysis, precursor id. Higher sampling rates may help.
Cost/Benefit analysis needed to know return on investment.

PNNL has device to combine multiple DC inputs.
ORNL has voltage-source converter-prototype working at 1 MW, 480v.

**DA switching algorithms
Need architecture and logic for distributed intelligence/decision making, a "LAN for control" that reports up to higher levels. For example, a group of switches could cope with problems locally (idea of a "virtual substation"--i.e. not located in one place).

Accommodating distributed generation - many issues to deal with.

**Substations --How to get from data to information and decisions

3. Discussions on Utility Industry Needs

A. ISOs -Emerging Issues in Regional Transmission --
(Discussion leader: Roger Fischer, TU)

 Change is coming fast! ISO's already getting established.

 Need to get information into OASIS.
What are mechanisms to calculate and post Trans. Capacity; Reporting systems.
How to do (dynamic) security analysis in open environment--will need to anticipate and respond to outages differently--systems, sensors, FACTS, information management, etc. to detect imminent failures and protect the grid.
Ancillary Services-who'll provide them; how will they be priced/billed?
How will congestion issues be dealt with?

 Contracts vs. the free market-- efficiency and security/reliability pull in opposite direction -- paper work won't match actual operations.

 ISO's won't own the wires--will need computers, real time analysis/state estimation, control capability, and "over-the-horizon" look into generators (with proprietary data issues).

B. Smarter Operations (Discussion leader: Gary Roskos-NSP)
C. New Devices (Discussion leader: Jim Lemke-Cinergy)

 Areas of greatest interest and concern (where the money is):
Bulk Transmission and Load-serving Transmission, Distribution, Critical customers
Note: Boundary "at the meter" between "poles & wires" and marketing/services may be fuzzy.

 Need "technology leaps" (lower cost, more function) in systems for:
- Customer Information
- Resource Utilization
- Physical Plant Record Keeping
- System Monitoring and Control
- Integration of all the above- Systems, and Organization (especially)

 System wide improvements needed:
- Customer Access to Information
- Power Quality -- Large Scale UPS Systems
(Most new technology fixes for P/Q are not yet commercial!)
- System Monitoring and Control
- Capital and O&M Cost Reduction

 O&M Needs:
- Accurate Condition Assessment - sensors, decision making, communication
- Low Cost Distrib Autom. - transducers, communic, control strategies
(Cheaper bandwidth--more for less) (Switching algorithms)
- Accommodation for Distributed Generation
- Cold/Storm Weather Operations/Maintenance.
- Resource Scheduling, Tracking, Dispatching
- BENEFIT/COST Analysis -- Value of Distribution System Improvements
- Fault location (details above)

4. Labs Overview Presentations

**PNNL** (Landis Kannberg)
-See changes in utility industry requiring new operations/control systems architectures.
- T&D being neglected as focus of restructuring is on supply and marketing.

 Monitoring & Control:
- Portable Power System Monitoring Unit (wide area, gps synchronized)
- Portable Dynamic Analysis & Design
- Wide Area Measurement System ("DataTake" and "DataSee" software packages)
- Distributed Load Controller for Grid Stability
- Dynamic Event Recognizer (wavelet based)
- Fiber Optic Instrument Platform Analysis
- Model based simulation, visualization (power system dynamics)
- Measurement-based (freq. domain, mode analysis for TCSC, etc.)
Power Conversion
- Pulse Amplitude Synthesis Control -Step Wave form
(combined multiple DC inputs)
- Site/Applications evaluation studies
Information Technology
- Short Term Load Forecaster (neural net)
- Communications Network Architecture
- Automated Diagnosis
Distributed Utilities --studies, valuation, effects on grid

**Sandia** (David Robinson)
There are many applicable areas of expertise at SNL.
Presentation focused on Reliability Methods for Complex Networks.

 Tools exist, and in use by telephone networks.
Need to take level of traffic into account-can have paradoxical effects.
Real Time Performance Monitoring -- in use for on-board vehicle diagnostics.
- Optimize #, type, placement of sensors
- Reduce sensor data to feature set
- Present decision info to operators
Predictive Maintenance Tool -- already in use by several mfg.
Secure Data Communications -- program for textile industry

 Also, brief discussion about Sandia's efforts on real-time system performance monitoring and fault identification, particularly citing their advances in "diagnostic algorithms", and noting opportunities for inter-lab collaboration.

**ORNL** (John Stowall)
Major DOE T&D Program -- funding cut

 High Capacity Transmission--will be hard to build 100,000 Mi of needed new transmission by 2010, so need to increase capacity of existing corridors.
- High Phase Order -- demo completed
- Real Time Control (FACTS)
- Advanced Analysis
- HVDC--goal to reduce unit costs-- next gen. hi-power electronics
- Voltage Source Converter developed, with many potential applications

 Distribution Control
- Study substations using high bandwidth data collection
- Algorithms for Capacitor switching

 Studies--Ancillary Control, regional marginal costs, etc.

 HTSC Cable and Transformer programs

**NIST** (Gerry Fitzpatrick)
Metrology for Elec Power Systems, relevant to T&D

 Seeking comments on their draft Strategic Plan for NIST & elec utility industry.

- Cable condition/aging studies (for nuclear plants)
- SF6 studies, substitutes
- partial discharge measurements, correl with acoustic, electrical signatures;
- PD measurement instrument package under development

 Power Quality
- Characterization, measurement (need to focus on current not voltage!)
- Simulation, suppression of Surges
EMF Measurements
Precise measurements of high voltage and current: - impulse, dividers, OCTs
Power, energy meter tests, motor and transformer efficiency

**INEL** (Shawn West, Tom Ulrich)
Available now:
- Emergency Generator Systems Planning and Design
- Utility Control Systems and Supervisory Control Studies
- Corrosion Mitigation
- Distrib Automation (next generation SCADA)

 Pending/in development:
- Anticipated Transformer Failure Monitor (acoustic)
- Optical PT
- Substation Equipment Diagnostic Expert System
- Substation stray HV Monitoring system

- Mobile Distributed Generator
- Direct Buried Transformer
- Power Reliability Assessment
- Regional Management Center Model
- Oilless Overhead Transformer (pat. applic in prep), 500kVA
Vendors interested, needs utility participants.

**Ontario Hydro Technology (OHT)** (Gerry Ford)
See technology not as a "cost", but as an enabler of change and competitive advantage.
OHT is in house R&D arm of Ontario Hydro, with 500 staff; broad program areas.

 In T&D, some of the products that are available now:
- Digital Power System Stabilizer
- Microprocessor Digital Frequency Recorder
- Power System Disturbance Recorder
- Real Time Digital Simulator-Services
- Asset Mgt and Maint. Optimization
- Transmission Line Assessment and Refurbishment
- Lineman Fall Protection Program
- GIS & CT/PT Diagnostic monitoring systems
- Line Clearance/Sag Monitor
- State-Based Decision Making (network)
- High V, I test facilities
- Substation and Power apparatus real-time monitoring and information systems
- Insulation coordination
- Pipe Cable refurbishment




 PARTICIPANTS: (address and tel. list at end)

 ** UTILITIES (UFTO Members) ----------------
EdF Andre Marquet Tex Util Roger Fischer
Cinergy Jim Lemke NSP Gary Roskos

 ** LABS -----------------------------------
PNNL -- Carl Imhoff, et.al.           SANDIA -- David Robinson
ORNL -- John Stowall                    NIST -- Jerry Fitzpatrick
INEL -- Shawn West, Tom Ulrich
Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) -- Gary Ford

 PROGRAM -----------------------------
"Implications of Industry Restructuring for T&D; Technology Challenges
and Opportunities"

- RECENT MAJOR OUTAGES Implications/lessons

* What's needed on the T&D grid now and in the future
* What do the Labs have to offer

 Topics to include: equipment, devices, systems, operations, maintenance, automation, materials, sensors, reliability, analysis, planning, etc., FOR THE GRID. Not generation, storage, end-use, etc.; distributed resources only to extent of assessing impact on the grid. Not "analysis" i.e. large scale power system models.

 Purpose -- A chance for:
-- An informal dialogue and exchange of ideas;
-- The market to say what it needs;
-- The Labs to show what they have done and can do;
-- Relationship building;
-- Exploration of collaborative opportunities.

 Success Measures: All attendees learn something useful; collaborations initiated; utilities adopt lab technology; labs gain better understanding of market needs; etc.

 Background: UFTO member utility companies have seen detailed reports that describe the work at each of many Federal Labs, and this material has been well received. Now, their goal is to concentrate in a particular technical area, and bring together representatives and the technology offerings from across all the labs, for the purposes outlined above.

 Though DOE is not currently funding T&D research, the labs have long experience, many exciting products, innovations and ideas, and technical expertise that can be brought to bear (e.g. systems analysis, sensors, materials, etc., just to name a few).

Monday Afternoon, November 11

 1:00 - 1:20 Welcome and Introductions
1:20 - 3:00 Framing the Challenge
Brief Presentations Followed by Discussion

Emerging Issues in Regional Transmission
(Roger Fischer, Texas Utilities)
What do utilities* really need and want?
(Gary Roskos, NSP)
What do utilities* really need and want?
(Jim Lemke, Cinergy)
(*or whoever it is that will own/operate the "wires")
3:00- 3:20 BREAK
3:20 - 5:00 Overview of the Labs and What They Offer
Utilities for T&D (see below)
(Brief introductions -- 10-15 min each lab)
5:00 - 5:30 Prioritization of Topics for Detailed Discussion on Tuesday Morning
- Summarize Specific Matches
- Summarize Key Gaps/Needs of Industry
- What Can Labs Offer
6:30 pm DINNER (at a local winery)
Tuesday Morning
8:00 - 8:30 Continental Breakfast
8:30 - Brainstorming -- (Priorities, Opportunities, Obstacles)
Detailed Discussions (15-30 minutes each):
"Hits" (Specific match identified)
- Technical Presentations by Labs
- Industry Response
"Gaps" (Unmet needs that Labs could address)
- Define the need in detail
(Including long range future developments)
- Lab Response
11:30 Wrap Up, Next Steps, and Call for Action
12:00 Adjourn


 *Condition Assessment/Monitoring
Oil Condition Monitor -- Sandia
H2 Sensor for transformers -- Sandia
SF6 Degradation/partial discharge -- ORNL, NIST, OHT
Cable (nuclear plant) studies -- NIST, Sandia
Elec Machine Current Waveform -- ORNL
Optical Temp Sensor -- SRS
Oil Leak Detector -- INEL
Sensors -- chemical, temp, etc. -- "all"

 *Smart Control
Intellig Distrib Mgt (SCADA) -- INEL
Decision Support for O&M (DSOM) -- PNNL
Systems, Automation, Reliability -- LANL, Sandia, "all"

 *Distrib Utilities Analysis -- PNNL

Siting, ROW -- ANL
Renewable resource -- NREL

 *Power conversion

Higher Capacity Transmission (Hi-Phase Order) -- ORNL
Real Time Power System Control -- PNNL, ORNL
Wide Area Monitoring -- PNNL
EM Pulse Prediction -- Sandia, ORNL
Optical CT -- NIST
Optical PT -- INEL
High Strength Conductor -- Ames
Higher Efficiency Transformer -- Ames
Fast High Power Switching -- Sandia

 *Superconductivity -- ORNL, PNNL, LANL, ANL
SC Fault Limiter
SC Wire
SC Transformer
SC Technology for Utilities

 *Materials -- "all"
Corrosion Prevention (underground) -- INEL


 Participants -- Name/address/Tel/Fax/Email
Utility Participants  
Mr. Gary Roskos  
Team Leader, Performanace Analysis  
Northern States Power Co.  
414 Nicollet Mall 6th floor  
Minneapolis, MN 55401  
612-330-6891, fax 612-337-2380  
Mr. Jim Lemke, CINergy  
1619 W. Deffenbough  
Box 3039  
Kokomo IN 46904  
317-454-6196, fax 317-454-6581  
Mr. Roger Fischer  
Research & Development  
TU Services  
Energy Plaza, 19-052  
1601 Bryan Street  
Dallas, TX 75201-3411  
214-812-4314, fax 214-812-8967  
Mr. Andre Marquet  
Research & Development Div  
Electricité de France  
1, av. du Général de Gaulle  
92141 Clamart Cedex- FRANCE  
Ed Beardsworth  
951 Lincoln Avenue  
Palo Alto CA 94301-3041  
415-328-5670, fax 415-328-5675  
Lab Participants  
Gerry Fitzpatrick  
Bldg 220, Room B-344  
Gaithersburg MD 20899  
301-975-2737, fax 301-948-5796  
Gary Ford, Manager, Grid Program  
Ontario Hydro Technologies  
800 Kipliing Ave, KR297  
Toronto Ontario, CANADA M8Z5S4  
416-207-6613, fax 416-207-5558  
John P. Stovall  
Oak Ridge National Laboratory  
Bldg. 3147, MS-6070  
P. O. Box 2008  
Oak Ridge, TN 37931-6070  
423-574-5198, fax 423-574-5227  
Carl Imhoff  
Pacific Northwest National Lab  
PO Box 999  
Richland WA 99352  
509-375-4328, fax 509-375-5454  

Landis Kannberg  
509-375-3919, fax 509-375-4481  

Merwin Brown  
509-372-6323, fax 509-375-3970  
Shawn West  
Idaho National Engineering Lab  
PO Box 1625  
Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3805  
208-526-2971. fax 208-526-2818  

Tom Ulrich, Tech Transfer Office  
208-526-7282, fax 208-526-0953  
David G. Robinson  
Sandia National Laboratories  
P.O. Box 5800  
Albuquerque, NM 87185-0746  
505-844-5883, fax 505-844-3321